Stereochemistries and Biological Properties of Oligomycin A Diels–Alder Adducts
Oligomycin A is a potent antibiotic and antitumor agent. However, its applications are restricted by its high toxicity and low bioavailability. In this study, we obtained Oligomycin A Diels− Alder adducts with benzoquinone and N-benzylmaleimide and determined their absolute conﬁgurations by combining 1H and ROESY NMR data with molecular mechanics conformational analysis and quantum chemical reaction modeling. The latter showed that adduct stereochemistry is controlled by hydrogen bonding of the Oligomycin A side-chain isopropanol moiety with the carbonyl group of the dienophile. Biological studies showed that the Diels−Alder modiﬁcation of the Oligomycin A diene system resulted in a complex antiproliferative potential pattern. The synthesized adducts were determined to be more active against the triple-negative (ERα, PR, and HER2 negative) breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231 and lung carcinoma cell line A-549 compared to Oligomycin A. Meanwhile, Oligomycin A was more potent against myeloid leukemia cell line K-562 and breast carcinoma cell line MCF-7 than its derivatives. Thus, modiﬁcation of the diene moiety of Oligomycin A is a promising strategy for developing novel antitumor agents based on its scaﬀold.