### Article

## Linearization of the Riemann problem for a triangular system of conservation laws and delta shock wave formation process

Using the weak asymptotic method, we approximate a triangular system of conservation laws arising from the so-called generalized pressureless gas dynamics by a diagonal linear system. Then, we apply the usual method of characteristics to find approximate solution to the original system. As a consequence, we shall see how the delta shock wave naturally arises along the characteristics. Also, we propose a procedure that could be applied to more general systems of conservation laws.

The article reviews a possible correlation of perception patterns employed by translators of original English subject-specific texts and the subsequent text generation in line with syntactic conventions recognized in the target language. Syntactic adequacy of text structures generated in the target language is addressed, as well as related complexities. Relative syntactic acceptability of a translation product is considered resulting from the source-text's preserved word order linearity.

*This paper considers a scheme of linearizing compensator for parallel Hammerstein model. The compensator exactly linearizes the system*

*via the internal feedback without truncation of Volterra series. Using the compensator with online identification determines adaptive linearization*

In a neighborhood of a singular point, we consider autonomous systems of ordinary differential equations such that the matrix of the linearized system has two pure imaginary eigenvalues, all other eigenvalues lying outside the imaginary axis. The problem of local finitely smooth equivalence of such systems is studied.

In a neighborhood of a singular point, we consider autonomous systems of ordinary differential equations such that the matrix of the linearized system has two pure imaginary eigenvalues, all other eigenvalues lying outside the imaginary axis. The reducibility of such systems to pseudonormal form is studied.

Let k be a field of characteristic zero, let G be a connected reductive algebraic group over k and let g be its Lie algebra. Let k(G), respectively, k(g), be the field of k- rational functions on G, respectively, g. The conjugation action of G on itself induces the adjoint action of G on g. We investigate the question whether or not the field extensions k(G)/k(G)^G and k(g)/k(g)^G are purely transcendental. We show that the answer is the same for k(G)/k(G)^G and k(g)/k(g)^G, and reduce the problem to the case where G is simple. For simple groups we show that the answer is positive if G is split of type A_n or C_n, and negative for groups of other types, except possibly G_2. A key ingredient in the proof of the negative result is a recent formula for the unramified Brauer group of a homogeneous space with connected stabilizers. As a byproduct of our investigation we give an affirmative answer to a question of Grothendieck about the existence of a rational section of the categorical quotient morphism for the conjugating action of G on itself.

Let G be a connected semisimple algebraic group over an algebraically closed field k. In 1965 Steinberg proved that if G is simply connected, then in G there exists a closed irreducible cross-section of the set of closures of regular conjugacy classes. We prove that in arbitrary G such a cross-section exists if and only if the universal covering isogeny Ĝ → G is bijective; this answers Grothendieck's question cited in the epigraph. In particular, for char k = 0, the converse to Steinberg's theorem holds. The existence of a cross-section in G implies, at least for char k = 0, that the algebra k[G]G of class functions on G is generated by rk G elements. We describe, for arbitrary G, a minimal generating set of k[G]G and that of the representation ring of G and answer two Grothendieck's questions on constructing generating sets of k[G]G. We prove the existence of a rational (i.e., local) section of the quotient morphism for arbitrary G and the existence of a rational cross-section in G (for char k = 0, this has been proved earlier); this answers the other question cited in the epigraph. We also prove that the existence of a rational section is equivalent to the existence of a rational W-equivariant map T- - - >G/T where T is a maximal torus of G and W the Weyl group.