Зависимость тока ускоренных ионов в холловском электрическом ракетном двигателе от рабочего напряжения
Free-molecule flow of neutral particles is considered in the kinetic approximation under conditions of strong ionization depletion. The problem is solved for an arbitrary semi-isotropic distribution function of particles by velocities at the surface of the emitter. The kinetic effects of preferential depletion of tangentially flying and slow particles are considered. The kinetic equation is solved for the emitter having the forms of a plane, semi-plane, strip, and circle. The average densities, flow densities, and average hydrodynamic velocities are calculated. The expressions for ionization probability of the working gas in channels of Hall thrusters are obtained.
This volume presents new results in the study and optimization of information transmission models in telecommunication networks using different approaches, mainly based on theiries of queueing systems and queueing networks .
The paper provides a number of proposed draft operational guidelines for technology measurement and includes a number of tentative technology definitions to be used for statistical purposes, principles for identification and classification of potentially growing technology areas, suggestions on the survey strategies and indicators. These are the key components of an internationally harmonized framework for collecting and interpreting technology data that would need to be further developed through a broader consultation process. A summary of definitions of technology already available in OECD manuals and the stocktaking results are provided in the Annex section.