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## Electronic phase separation: recent progress in the old problem

We consider the nanoscale electronic phase separation in a wide class of different materials, mostly in strongly correlated electron systems. The phase separation turns out to be quite ubiquitous manifesting itself in different situations, where the itineracy of charge carriers competes with their tendency toward localization. The latter is often related to some specific type of magnetic ordering, e.g. antiferromagnetic in manganites and low-spin states in cobaltites. The interplay between the localization induced lowering of potential energy and metallicity (which provides the gain in the kinetic energy) favors an inhomogeneous ground state such as nanoscale ferromagnetic

droplets in an antiferromagnetic insulating background. The present review article deals with the advances in the subject of electronic phase separation and formation of different types of nanoscale ferromagnetic (FM) metallic droplets (FM polarons or ferrons) in antiferromagnetically ordered (AFM), charge-ordered (CO), or orbitally-ordered (OO) insulating matrices, as well as the colossal magnetoresistance (CMR) effect and tunneling electron transport in the nonmetallic phase-separated state of complex magnetic oxides. It also touches upon the compounds with spin-state transitions, inhomogeneous phase separated state in strongly correlated multiband systems, and electron polaron effect. A special, attention is paid to the systems with the imperfect Fermi surface nesting such

as chromium alloys, iron-based pnictides, and AA stacked graphene bilayers.

Half-metals have fully spin-polarized charge carriers at the Fermi surface. Such polarization usually occurs due to strong electron-electron correlations. Recently [Phys. Rev. Lett. 119, 107601 (2017)] we have demonstrated theoretically that adding (or removing) electrons to systems with Fermi surface nesting also stabilizes the half-metallic states even in the weak-coupling regime. In the absence of doping, the ground state of the system is a spin or charge density wave, formed by four nested bands. Each of these bands is characterized by charge (electron/hole) and spin (up/down) labels. Only two of these bands accumulate charge carriers introduced by doping, forming a half-metallic two-valley Fermi surface. Analysis demonstrates that two types of such half-metallicity can be stabilized. The first type corresponds to the full spin polarization of the electrons and holes at the Fermi surface. The second type, with antiparallel spins in electronlike and holelike valleys, is referred to as a “spin-valley half-metal” and corresponds to the complete polarization with respect to the spin-valley operator. We analyze spin and spin-valley currents and possible superconductivity in these systems. We show that spin or spin-valley currents can flow in half-metallic phases.

We analyze the effects of an applied magnetic field on the phase diagram of a weakly correlated electron system with imperfect nesting. The Hamiltonian under study describes two bands: electron and hole ones. Both bands have spherical Fermi surfaces, whose radii are slightly mismatched due to doping. These types of models are often used in the analysis of magnetic states in chromium and its alloys, superconducting iron pnictides, AA-type bilayer graphene, borides, etc. At zero magnetic field, the uniform ground state of the system turns out to be unstable against electronic phase separation. The applied magnetic field affects the phase diagram in several ways. In particular, the Zeeman term stabilizes new antiferromagnetic phases. It also significantly shifts the boundaries of inhomogeneous (phase-separated) states. At sufficiently high fields, the Landau quantization gives rise to oscillations of the order parameters and of the Néel temperature as a function of the magnetic field.

Using a simple and rather general model of the system with imperfect nesting of the Fermi surface, we show that the spin density wave (SDW) and normal metal (or, at low temperature, a superconductor) can coexist within a certain pressure range due to the electronic phase separation. The model predicts the SDW state at low pressure, then, the nucleation of paramagnetic (PM) droplets or islands within the SDWhost at higher pressure.When the pressure continues to increase, the droplets transform to rods (or pillars) and, finally, to slabs. With the further growth of pressure, a uniform metallic phase arises. The theory agrees well with the experiment and, even in its simplest version, can capture the essential physics of the systems under study.

The dynamics of a two-component Davydov-Scott (DS) soliton with a small mismatch of the initial location or velocity of the high-frequency (HF) component was investigated within the framework of the Zakharov-type system of two coupled equations for the HF and low-frequency (LF) fields. In this system, the HF field is described by the linear Schrödinger equation with the potential generated by the LF component varying in time and space. The LF component in this system is described by the Korteweg-de Vries equation with a term of quadratic influence of the HF field on the LF field. The frequency of the DS soliton`s component oscillation was found analytically using the balance equation. The perturbed DS soliton was shown to be stable. The analytical results were confirmed by numerical simulations.

Radiation conditions are described for various space regions, radiation-induced effects in spacecraft materials and equipment components are considered and information on theoretical, computational, and experimental methods for studying radiation effects are presented. The peculiarities of radiation effects on nanostructures and some problems related to modeling and radiation testing of such structures are considered.

This volume presents new results in the study and optimization of information transmission models in telecommunication networks using different approaches, mainly based on theiries of queueing systems and queueing networks .

The paper provides a number of proposed draft operational guidelines for technology measurement and includes a number of tentative technology definitions to be used for statistical purposes, principles for identification and classification of potentially growing technology areas, suggestions on the survey strategies and indicators. These are the key components of an internationally harmonized framework for collecting and interpreting technology data that would need to be further developed through a broader consultation process. A summary of definitions of technology already available in OECD manuals and the stocktaking results are provided in the Annex section.