Influence of sheet resistance and strip width on the detection efficiency saturation in micron-wide superconducting strips and large-area meanders
We report our study of detection efficiency (DE) saturation in wavelength range 400 - 1550 nm for the NbN Superconducting Microstrip Single-Photon Detectors (SMSPD) featuring the strip width up to 3 μm. We observe an expected decrease of the $DE$ saturation plateau with the increase of photon wavelength and decrease of film sheet resistance. At 1.7 K temperature DE saturation can be clearly observed at 1550 nm wavelength in strip with the width up to 2 μm when sheet resistance of the film is above 630Ω/sq. In such strips the length of the saturation plateau almost does not depend on the strip width. We used these films to make meander-shaped detectors with the light sensitive area from 20×20μm2 to a circle 50 μm in diameter. In the latter case, the detector with the strip width of 0.49 μm demonstrates saturation of DE up to 1064 nm wavelength. Although DE at 1310 and 1550 nm is not saturated, it is as high as 60%. The response time is limited by the kinetic inductance and equals to 20 ns(by 1/e decay), timing jitter is 44 ps. When coupled to multi-mode fibre large-area meanders demonstrate significantly higher dark count rate which we attribute to thermal background photons, thus advanced filtering technique would be required for practical applications.
We demonstrate superconducting niobium nitride nanowires folded on top of lithium niobate substrate. We report of 6% system detection efficiency at 20 s-1 dark count rate at telecommunication wavelength (1550 nm). Our results shown great potential for the use of NbN nanowires in the field of linear and nonlinear integrated quantum photonics.
Measuring the thermal properties such as the heat capacity provide information about intrinsic mechanisms operated inside. In general, the ratio between electron and phonon specific heat Ce/Cp shows how the absorbed energy shared between electron and phonon subsystems. In this work we make estimations for amplitude-modulated absorption of THz radiation technique for investigation of the ratio Ce/Cp in superconducting Niobium Nitride (NbN) at T = Tc . Our results indicates that experimentally the frequency of modulation has to be extra large to extract the quantity. We perform a new technique allowed to work at low frequency with accurately measurement of absorbed power.
The research of ultrathin vanadium nitride (VN) films as a promising candidate for superconducting single-photon detectors (SSPD) is presented. The electron diffusivity measurements are performed for such devices. Devices that were fabricated out from 9.9 nm films had diffusivity coefficient of 0.41 cm2 /s and from 5.4 nm – 0.54 cm2 /s. Obtained values are similar to other typical SSPD materials. The diffusivity that increases along with decreasing of the film thickness is expected to allow fabrication of the devices with improved characteristics. Fabricated VN SSPDs showed prominent single-photon response in the range 0.9-1.55 µm
The dynamics of a two-component Davydov-Scott (DS) soliton with a small mismatch of the initial location or velocity of the high-frequency (HF) component was investigated within the framework of the Zakharov-type system of two coupled equations for the HF and low-frequency (LF) fields. In this system, the HF field is described by the linear Schrödinger equation with the potential generated by the LF component varying in time and space. The LF component in this system is described by the Korteweg-de Vries equation with a term of quadratic influence of the HF field on the LF field. The frequency of the DS soliton`s component oscillation was found analytically using the balance equation. The perturbed DS soliton was shown to be stable. The analytical results were confirmed by numerical simulations.
Radiation conditions are described for various space regions, radiation-induced effects in spacecraft materials and equipment components are considered and information on theoretical, computational, and experimental methods for studying radiation effects are presented. The peculiarities of radiation effects on nanostructures and some problems related to modeling and radiation testing of such structures are considered.
This volume presents new results in the study and optimization of information transmission models in telecommunication networks using different approaches, mainly based on theiries of queueing systems and queueing networks .
The paper provides a number of proposed draft operational guidelines for technology measurement and includes a number of tentative technology definitions to be used for statistical purposes, principles for identification and classification of potentially growing technology areas, suggestions on the survey strategies and indicators. These are the key components of an internationally harmonized framework for collecting and interpreting technology data that would need to be further developed through a broader consultation process. A summary of definitions of technology already available in OECD manuals and the stocktaking results are provided in the Annex section.