Method for Measuring Distortions in Speech Signals during Transmission over a Communication Channel to a Biometric Identification System
The present paper discusses the problem of distortions in speech signals transmitted over a communication channel to a biometric system during voice-based remote identification. A possible rectification approach involves a preliminary correction of the frequency spectrum of the received signal based on the pre-distortion principle. Taking into account a priori uncertainty, a new information indicator of speech signal distortions is proposed, along with a method for its measurement under conditions of small observation samples. An example of fast practical implementation of the method based on a parametric spectral analysis algorithm is considered. Results of an experimental test of the proposed approach are provided for three different communication channel instantiations. It is shown that the proposed method facilitates the transformation of an initially distorted speech signal into compliance with a registered voice template using an acceptable algorithmic information discrimination criterion. The described approach may be used in existing biometric systems and speaker identification technologies.
We developed a new method for measuring the pitch frequency of speech signals with elevated noise immunity. The problem of protection against intense background noise is solved in this method by the frequency selection of vocalized segments of speech signals according to a scheme with comb filter of interperiodic accumulation. The efficiency of the method is analyzed both theoretically and experimentally with the help of a multichannel frequency meter intended for the acoustic speech analysis. It is shown that, for a signal-to-noise ratio of 10 dB and higher, the error of the method does not exceed 2%.
In this article we consider application of Support Vector Machines with different types of kernels to the task of speaker identification. We use Fisher features for several types of channels (telephone, GSM, microphone). We analyze dependence of accuracy from length of input sentence.
We consider the problem of determination of the intelligibility of speech of a speaker according to a fi nite fragment of the speech signal. It is shown that the main diffi culties in the solution of this problem are connected with the necessity of analysis of small samples. To overcome the problem of small samples, we proposed a new high-speed method for measuring the intelligibility of speech signals on the sonic level of its perception. The proposed method is based on the information indicator of speech intelligibility in the Kullback–Leibler metric. We consider an example of practical realization of the new method with the use of a self-regression model of minimum sound units from the speech fl ow of a speaker. The characteristics of effi ciency of the new method are analyzed. It is shown that, under certain conditions, the application of the information indicator enables us to realize the general systems principle of guaranteed result. On the basis of the software developed by the authors, we designed and performed full-scale experiments and established quantitative estimates for the speed of this method. It is shown that, with the help of this method, quite accurate and reliable estimates of the information indicator are obtained for short (2–3 min) segments of speech signals. The accumulated results and the conclusions made on their basis are intended for applications in the development of new systems and improvement of the existing systems of automatic speech processing and recognition intended for the operation in the real-time mode.
A model for organizing cargo transportation between two node stations connected by a railway line which contains a certain number of intermediate stations is considered. The movement of cargo is in one direction. Such a situation may occur, for example, if one of the node stations is located in a region which produce raw material for manufacturing industry located in another region, and there is another node station. The organization of freight traﬃc is performed by means of a number of technologies. These technologies determine the rules for taking on cargo at the initial node station, the rules of interaction between neighboring stations, as well as the rule of distribution of cargo to the ﬁnal node stations. The process of cargo transportation is followed by the set rule of control. For such a model, one must determine possible modes of cargo transportation and describe their properties. This model is described by a ﬁnite-dimensional system of diﬀerential equations with nonlocal linear restrictions. The class of the solution satisfying nonlocal linear restrictions is extremely narrow. It results in the need for the “correct” extension of solutions of a system of diﬀerential equations to a class of quasi-solutions having the distinctive feature of gaps in a countable number of points. It was possible numerically using the Runge–Kutta method of the fourth order to build these quasi-solutions and determine their rate of growth. Let us note that in the technical plan the main complexity consisted in obtaining quasi-solutions satisfying the nonlocal linear restrictions. Furthermore, we investigated the dependence of quasi-solutions and, in particular, sizes of gaps (jumps) of solutions on a number of parameters of the model characterizing a rule of control, technologies for transportation of cargo and intensity of giving of cargo on a node station.
Event logs collected by modern information and technical systems usually contain enough data for automated process models discovery. A variety of algorithms was developed for process models discovery, conformance checking, log to model alignment, comparison of process models, etc., nevertheless a quick analysis of ad-hoc selected parts of a journal still have not get a full-fledged implementation. This paper describes an ROLAP-based method of multidimensional event logs storage for process mining. The result of the analysis of the journal is visualized as directed graph representing the union of all possible event sequences, ranked by their occurrence probability. Our implementation allows the analyst to discover process models for sublogs defined by ad-hoc selection of criteria and value of occurrence probability
The geographic information system (GIS) is based on the first and only Russian Imperial Census of 1897 and the First All-Union Census of the Soviet Union of 1926. The GIS features vector data (shapefiles) of allprovinces of the two states. For the 1897 census, there is information about linguistic, religious, and social estate groups. The part based on the 1926 census features nationality. Both shapefiles include information on gender, rural and urban population. The GIS allows for producing any necessary maps for individual studies of the period which require the administrative boundaries and demographic information.
Existing approaches suggest that IT strategy should be a reflection of business strategy. However, actually organisations do not often follow business strategy even if it is formally declared. In these conditions, IT strategy can be viewed not as a plan, but as an organisational shared view on the role of information systems. This approach generally reflects only a top-down perspective of IT strategy. So, it can be supplemented by a strategic behaviour pattern (i.e., more or less standard response to a changes that is formed as result of previous experience) to implement bottom-up approach. Two components that can help to establish effective reaction regarding new initiatives in IT are proposed here: model of IT-related decision making, and efficiency measurement metric to estimate maturity of business processes and appropriate IT. Usage of proposed tools is demonstrated in practical cases.