### ?

## Long-wave approximations in the description of bottom pressure

The role of various long-wave approximations in the description of the wave field and bottom pressure caused by surface waves, and their relation to evolution equations are being considered. In the framework of the linear theory, these approximations are being tested on the well-known exact solution for the wave spectral amplitudes and pressure variations. The famous Whitham, Korteweg–de Vries (KdV) and Benjamin–Bona–Mahony (BBM) equations have been used as evolutionary equations. It has been shown that if the wave is long, though steep enough, the BBM approximation gives better results than the KdV approximation, and they are quite close to the exact results. The same applies to the description of rogue waves, though formed from smooth relatively long waves, are often short and steep, then they may be invisible in variations of the bottom pressure. Another advantage of the BBM approximation for calculating the bottom pressure is the ability to analyze noisy series without preliminary filtering, which is necessary when using the KdV approximation.