Student employment in Russia: incidence, motivation and labour market outcomes
More than half of Russian university students combine study and work and dedicate on average 2/3 of their working week to paid work. A significant motivation for employment while studying, in addition to financial motivation, is the necessity to obtain work experience, which is valued by employers as an additional signal of the abilities of university graduates and their soft skills. Student employment does not considerably affect academic achievement due to the relatively low educational workload and the limited intensity of student employment. There is a significant and large positive effect of student employment on salaries of graduates in the early stages of their careers.
This paper analyses the impact of academic achievement on future salaries by looking into the grade point average (GPA)-earnings relationship for graduates of a leading Russian university. The study is based on pooled cross-sectional graduate survey data for 2014–2015. The issue of how student academic achievement impacts future labour market rewards is analysed through academic, demographic and labour market factors. We found that there is a significant positive impact of GPA on salaries of BA graduates (9–12% wage premium for an additional GPA point) and an insignificant or negative impact for MA programmes graduates. The study depicts that this negative effect can be partially explained by employment sector-specific variables. Among the main factors which positively affect earnings of graduates is work experience. Graduates who combined study and work achieve a 30% wage premium. However, there is no evidence that combining study and work affects student academic achievement, even for those who combined studies with full-time job. Despite the higher GPA of female students, male graduates’ earnings are 18% higher. Gender wage differences can be explained by gender distribution by the sector of employment: the over-representation of women in the low-paid education and science sectors and their under-representation in entrepreneurship and corporate sector.
This paper analyses the factors of combining study and work and the factors explaining intensity of work during study in Russia, based on cross-sectional survey data. The issue of how Russian students combine work and study is analysed through the set of financial,academic, social and demographic predictors, quality of university and quality of students. These factors may have an effect on student employment and student labour supply,and help shed light on what motivates students to enter the labour market. We discovered that 64.7% of Russian students combined study and work and most of them begin working during their third year of study. Our results indicate that factors associated with the quality of students, such as studying in a top university and participating in research activities, positively affect the probability of student employment, but negatively affect the intensity of employment. Financial motivations for student employment are also significant. We found that students receiving financial support from their families are less likely to be employed during their study and work less hours. However, we found no evidence that combining study and work affects students’academic achievements.
Today, combining academic study with employment is typical for a wide range of students. There are many reasons why students choose to work, from the need to integrate into the job market to the desire to fill spare time. The present article investigates how various study and work combinations affect the academic performance of students in their final years in Tatarstan higher education institutions. The article examines the first set of results produced by longitudinal studies commenced in 2009 by the Institute of Education, NRU HSE (National Research University, Higher School of Economics). Two factors—work schedule and correspondence between the type of work and the future profession—are used to identify five types of study and work combinations. Various combinations reveal different levels of academic performance, different plans for the future, and somewhat different reasons for having entered an institution of higher education. Regression analysis of the data showed that only one type of study and work combination—non-professional fulltime employment—has a negative effect on academic performance. Other strategies of student employment showed no statistically significant effect on academic performance. All other conditions being equal, professionally employed students perform better than their non-professionally employed counterparts, and sometimes even better than those who do not work at all. The article concludes that the optimal strategy for students is to combine study with professional part-time employment. In this case, work becomes an additional source of knowledge and skills, as well as a motivation to learn.