Trade in electricity under WTO and EAEU Law: compatibility of two legal regimes
Accession of Russia and Kazakhstan to the World Trade Organization (WTO) constitutes a landmark event in the history of this organization, especially in relation to trade in energy, in general, and trade in electricity, in particular. As a result, the role of the WTO in regulating trade in electricity has increasingly grown. However, the Treaty on the Eurasian Economic Union, a treaty that binds both Russia and Kazakhstan, necessitates additional regulation for trade in electricity, concurrent with law of the WTO. Recently, this treaty was amended by the Protocol on Common Electricity Market on 1 July 2019. As a result, compatibility issues between the rules of the WTO and the Eurasian Economic Union arise. This article concludes that the law of the WTO can be relevant to trade in electricity between Member States of the Eurasian Economic Union and third countries because of the specific place of the rules of the WTO under the Eurasian Economic Union legal order.
The present chapter examines the provisions of the law of the Eurasian Economic Union (EAEU) on the free movement of persons, focusing on workers. It asks whether there is a “Civis Eurasiaticus” and what this status means. Under EAEU law, there are a number of protections for workers and their family members, but due to a number of limitations the overall status is significantly less advantageous than that of workers under EU law. Moreover, EAEU law appears to pursue a non-integration rationale. A comparison with the citizenship provisions of the Russia-Belarus Union state legal framework reveals that the latter contains at least some more far-reaching provisions e.g. in the field of permanent residence rights. One may hope that based on inspiration from this source and on the interpretive “wiggle room” of EAEU law provisions the future case law of the EAEU Court continues to adhere to a rights-based reading of EAEU law and develops its own “citizenship spirit”.
This article offers an overview of the first years of case law of the Court of the Eurasian Economic Union, which started its work on 1 January 2015. Both procedural and substantive issues are covered, ranging from the pre-litigation procedure and the presentation of new pleas in law during court proceedings to the mutual recognition of customs authorities’ decisions in the Union and the deferral of the decision to impose anti-dumping measures beyond the maximum duration of an anti-dumping investigation.
This publication, prepared by an international team of authors, is a study of economic integration processes in the Eurasian region and is one of the first works containing a multilateral analysis of the norms of regional trade agreements concluded with the participation of states of the Eurasian region (in particular, the Eurasian Economic Union), in the context of membership States in the World Trade Organization and international trade relations with third countries. The study covers issues of interaction between the norms of international economic and national law of the states of the region, practical issues of the Eurasian Economic Commission, such as anti-dumping investigations or issues of sanitary and phytosanitary regulation. The subject of the study was the relationship between the norms of international trade and environmental law, as well as the regulation of energy trade with the participation of states of the Eurasian region. This publication is intended for researchers, graduate students and students studying international trade law and international economic relations, practicing lawyers working in the field of foreign trade, and all interested in international economic law.
On 1 January 2017, France started a two-year trial of a mandatory country of origin labelling (hereinafter, COOL) scheme, which requires producers of milk, food containing milk products and food containing meat to provide information on the country of origin of the products. The scheme was introduced through Decree No 2016-1137 (i.e. Décret n° 2016-1137 du 19 août 2016 relatif à l’indication de l’origine du lait et du lait et des viandes utilisés en tant qu’ingrédient,1 hereinafter, the Decree). Before the end of this trial period, France has promised to provide a report to the European Commission (hereinafter, Commission) that would allow it to review consumer patterns and the potential impact on the internal market. In view of the report, the Commission may consider implementing such a scheme in all EU Member States. This article also notes that other EU Member States are introducing their own COOL measures and concludes that, when COOL is being made mandatory, the EU’s international trade obligations must be taken into account by the EU and its Member States.
The paper evaluated the positive and negative effects of the transition of the Russian system of higher education in the Bologna process. The author analyzes the impact of the commitments of the Russian Federation in accordance with the Agreement of the GATS of WTO accession on the domestic market of educational services.
The article also offered the author's definition WTO law. The author justifies the introduction of discipline "rules of the World Trade Organization" in the direction of (specialty) "Jurisprudence" (qualification "Bachelor") and "Customs" (qualification "Specialist") the need to improve the quality of educational services provided to enhance the competitiveness of Russian education in the international market and competitiveness of Russian graduates in the international labor market in the light of Russia's WTO accession.
In conclusion, the author of the article makes general conclusions regarding the Bologna Process, readiness of the Russian educational system to enter the international market of educational services and the need to introduce the discipline "of WTO rules" in areas of training "Jurisprudence" and "Customs".
The article is devoted to a particular form of freedom of assembly — the right to counter-demonstrate. The author underlines the value of this right as an element of democratic society, but also acknowledges the risk of violent actions among participants of opposing demonstrations. Due to this risk, the government may adopt adequate measures restricting the right to counter-demonstrate, certain types of which are analyzed in this paper.
Development of standards of international controllability is reviewed in the article. Institutional approach is applied to development of international legal regime of Energy Charter. Definition of controllability is connected to development of international standards of dispute settlement, which are described in the article in detail. In connection with controllability, Russian interest, defense of investment in European Union and ecological investment encouragement, is reviewed in the article.
мировое управление и управляемость, Мировая экономика, международное экономическое право, энергетическая хартия, International control and controllability, International economics, international economic law, Energy Charter
международное частное право; недвижимость; ; школа бартолистов; бартолисты; теория статутов; статуарная теория/