Поэма Н.А. Некрасова «Мороз, Красный Нос» в художественной структуре романа Б.Л. Пастернака «Доктор Живаго»
The article considers Nekrasov’s reminiscences in the novel “Doctor Zhivago” by B.L. Pasternak. Despite the fact that Pasternak never referred to Nekrasov as to a poet important to him, Zhivago wrote in his diary of Nekrasov’s three-syllabic meters and dactylic rhymes as expressions of “the rhythms of Russia speaking”. This mention sets a number of significant parallels between the novel and Nekrasov’s poem “Frost, Red Nose”, which are revealed at different levels, such as those of character, motive and plot. For instance, the nekrasovian grandeur of a woman is dissolved in Lara’s appearance and character traits, thus preparing for matching the images of Lara and Russia. No less important are the plot parallels associated with the image of a funeral and a lament for the dead. Daria’s deathbed visions – of struggling with advancing rye ears and of expecting a baby – are echoed in the final chapters of the novel. The novel, as well as the poem, are both framed by two deaths, with the circumstances of Lara’s death clearly correlating with Nekrasov’s Daria freezing down in the forest. It is shown that Nekrasov’s poem reveals the significant meanings of the novel and is included in its subtext.
The paper is focused on the study of reaction of italian literature critics on the publication of the Boris Pasternak's novel "Doctor Jivago". The analysys of the book ""Doctor Jivago", Pasternak, 1958, Italy" (published in Russian language in "Reka vremen", 2012, in Moscow) is given. The papers of italian writers, critics and historians of literature, who reacted immediately upon the publication of the novel (A. Moravia, I. Calvino, F.Fortini, C. Cassola, C. Salinari ecc.) are studied and analised.
This article tells the story of the reception of Lydia Ginzburg prose by the younger generation and of the changes in her reputation provoked in 2011 by the latest publication of Ginzburg's previously unknown prose of the 1940s. The first phase of the reception was characterized by the predominance of an immediate and integrative approach, while the second phase is characterized by a historical distantiation of the reader and by a discrimination of various heterogeneous lavers in Ginzburg's prose. A special stress is made on a dramatic contradiction between two trends in Ginzburg's prose: a trends towards the creation of an "in-between prose" and an other semi-hidden trend towards the creation of a modern novel in the spirit of Proust.
The novel Doctor Zhivago, first published in 1957, immediately provoked critical debates that continue to this day, and has been the subject of numerous scholarly studies (C. Barnes, B. Gasparov, P. A. Jensen, A. Lavrov. M. Aucouturier, O. Raevsky-Hughes, I. Smirnov, L. Fleishman, Iu. Shcheglov, A. Khan, and many others). On one hand, Boris Pasternak’s positions (founded on his religious historiosophy) with regard to the events, people and situation that he depicts have formed one of the central topics of critical and scholarly contention. On the other hand, it is the specificity of the novel’s poetics and most centrally of its generic identity, the laws of its organization of novelistic time and problems of the prototypes of its central characters, that have served as objects of debate. It is our contention, however, that the choice of genre (that we have defined as being that of “a historical novel of a new type”) was fundamental for Pasternak and determined the entirety of the novel’s poetics. As we will demonstrate, the author was continuing the tradition of Walter Scott, which had been rejected by other contemporary Soviet authors who described the history of the twentieth century. In taking up work on the novel, Pasternak emphasized many times that he desired to present an image of the course of history of the first half of the twentieth century—the “forty- five-year era,” as he named this period several times in his letters. This dissertation describes the author’s search for a means for the artistic embodiment of contemporary events and his final choice of the “Walter Scott tradition” of historical novel for Doctor Zhivago. In this connection the work includes marked reflections of C. Dickens’ Tale of Two Cities, Pushkin’s The Captain’s Daughter and Dubrovsky, and L. Tolstoi’s War and Peace, as well as sharp polemics with historical works of prose fiction by Pasternak’s contemporaries and with the highly ideologically charged Soviet historiography. Separate consideration will be given to the specific events, situations and names that Pasternak considered it necessary to include in his narrative, presenting in this way his own version of a hierarchy of characteristic phenomena of these decades. The dissertation demonstrates that in Doctor Zhivago history is presented simultaneously as a force, organizing the actions of people and forming their characters and world-views, and also as a chain of events to be understood and made meaningful by the protagonists, and finally as an ineluctable law of human existence that has been reestablished by the force of artistic creation—by the poetry of Iurii Zhivago. At the very foundation of the Zhivago’s poetry lay the ideas of his uncle—the philosopher Vedeniapin, who defines history as an element of the Christian comprehension of the world. The central place of these characters in the novel defines the nature of Pasternak’s techniques with prototypes, by which he embeds into his characters the views, characteristics and fates of various of his contemporaries (A. Bely, A. Blok, D. Samarin, the author himself, and others). We also propose explanation of the work’s many anachronisms, which become a means for communication of the laws of the post-revolutionary period (1917-1943)—a period that “fell” out of history. At the same time we will show how historical time is reestablished in the Epilogue that completes the novel and in the “Poems of Doctor Zhivago.” This dissertation may be characterized as interdisciplinary. In it, the methods of literary- historical and intertextual analysis are applied. The text is examined in relation to social, cultural and historical phenomena of Russia during the first half of the twentieth century.
In the article the patterns of the realization of emotional utterances in dialogic and monologic speech are described. The author pays special attention to the characteristic features of the speech of a speaker feeling psychic tension and to the compositional-pragmatic peculiarities of dialogic and monologic text.