### Article

## Revisiting Quantum Discord for Two-Qubit X States: The Error Bound to an Analytical Formula

In this article, we investigate the error bound of quantum discord, obtained from

the analytic formula of Ali et al. (Phys. Rev. A 81, 042105, 2010) for the case of general

X states and from the analytic formula of Fanchini et al. (Phys. Rev. A 81, 052107, 2010)

for the case of symmetric X states. For this purpose we consider 3-element POVM.We find

that the results of Ali et al. and Fanchini et al. may have the worst-case errors of 0.004565

and 0.0009, respectively.

Quantum state discrimination of coherent states has been one of important problems in quantum information processing. Recently, R. Han et al. showed that minimum error discrimination of two coherent states can be nearly done by using Jaynes-Cummings Hamiltonian. In this paper, based on the result of R. Han et al., we propose the methods where minimum error discrimination of more than two weak coherent states can be nearly performed. Specially, we construct models which can do almost minimum error discrimination of three and four coherent states. Our result can be applied to quantum information processing of various coherent states.

The analysis of single-mode photon fluctuations and their counting statistics at the superradiant phase transition is presented. The study concerns the equilibrium Dicke model in a regime where the Rabi frequency, related to a coupling of the photon mode with a finite-number qubit environment, plays the role of the transition's control parameter. We use the effective Matsubara action formalism based on the representation of Pauli operators as bilinear forms with complex and Majorana fermions. Then, we address fluctuations of superradiant order parameter and quasiparticles. The average photon number, the fluctuational Ginzburg-Levanyuk region of the phase transition, and Fano factor are evaluated. We determine the cumulant-generating function which describes a full counting statistics of equilibrium photon number. Exact numerical simulation of the superradiant transition demonstrates quantitative agreement with analytical calculations.

Sequential state discrimination is a strategy for N separated receivers. As sequential state discrimination can be applied to multiparty quantum key distribution (QKD), it has become one of the relevant research fields in quantum information theory. Up to now, the analysis of sequential state discrimination has been confined to special cases. In this report, we consider a generalization of sequential state discrimination. Here, we do not limit the prior probabilities and the number of quantum states and receivers. We show that the generalized sequential state discrimination can be expressed as an optimization problem. Moreover, we investigate a structure of generalized sequential state discrimination for two quantum states and apply it to multiparty QKD. We demonstrate that when the number of receivers is not too many, generalized sequential state discrimination for two pure states can be suitable for multiparty QKD. In addition, we show that generalized sequential state discrimination for two mixed states can be performed with high optimal success probability. This optimal success probability is even higher than those of quantum reproducing and quantum broadcasting strategy. Thus, generalized sequential state discrimination of mixed states is adequate for performing multiparty QKD. Furthermore, we prove that generalized sequential state discrimination can be implemented experimentally by using linear optics. Finally, we analyze the security of multiparty QKD provided by optimal sequential state discrimination. Our analysis shows that the multiparty QKD guarantees nonzero secret key rate even in low channel efficiency.

A model for organizing cargo transportation between two node stations connected by a railway line which contains a certain number of intermediate stations is considered. The movement of cargo is in one direction. Such a situation may occur, for example, if one of the node stations is located in a region which produce raw material for manufacturing industry located in another region, and there is another node station. The organization of freight traﬃc is performed by means of a number of technologies. These technologies determine the rules for taking on cargo at the initial node station, the rules of interaction between neighboring stations, as well as the rule of distribution of cargo to the ﬁnal node stations. The process of cargo transportation is followed by the set rule of control. For such a model, one must determine possible modes of cargo transportation and describe their properties. This model is described by a ﬁnite-dimensional system of diﬀerential equations with nonlocal linear restrictions. The class of the solution satisfying nonlocal linear restrictions is extremely narrow. It results in the need for the “correct” extension of solutions of a system of diﬀerential equations to a class of quasi-solutions having the distinctive feature of gaps in a countable number of points. It was possible numerically using the Runge–Kutta method of the fourth order to build these quasi-solutions and determine their rate of growth. Let us note that in the technical plan the main complexity consisted in obtaining quasi-solutions satisfying the nonlocal linear restrictions. Furthermore, we investigated the dependence of quasi-solutions and, in particular, sizes of gaps (jumps) of solutions on a number of parameters of the model characterizing a rule of control, technologies for transportation of cargo and intensity of giving of cargo on a node station.

Let k be a field of characteristic zero, let G be a connected reductive algebraic group over k and let g be its Lie algebra. Let k(G), respectively, k(g), be the field of k- rational functions on G, respectively, g. The conjugation action of G on itself induces the adjoint action of G on g. We investigate the question whether or not the field extensions k(G)/k(G)^G and k(g)/k(g)^G are purely transcendental. We show that the answer is the same for k(G)/k(G)^G and k(g)/k(g)^G, and reduce the problem to the case where G is simple. For simple groups we show that the answer is positive if G is split of type A_n or C_n, and negative for groups of other types, except possibly G_2. A key ingredient in the proof of the negative result is a recent formula for the unramified Brauer group of a homogeneous space with connected stabilizers. As a byproduct of our investigation we give an affirmative answer to a question of Grothendieck about the existence of a rational section of the categorical quotient morphism for the conjugating action of G on itself.

Let G be a connected semisimple algebraic group over an algebraically closed field k. In 1965 Steinberg proved that if G is simply connected, then in G there exists a closed irreducible cross-section of the set of closures of regular conjugacy classes. We prove that in arbitrary G such a cross-section exists if and only if the universal covering isogeny Ĝ → G is bijective; this answers Grothendieck's question cited in the epigraph. In particular, for char k = 0, the converse to Steinberg's theorem holds. The existence of a cross-section in G implies, at least for char k = 0, that the algebra k[G]G of class functions on G is generated by rk G elements. We describe, for arbitrary G, a minimal generating set of k[G]G and that of the representation ring of G and answer two Grothendieck's questions on constructing generating sets of k[G]G. We prove the existence of a rational (i.e., local) section of the quotient morphism for arbitrary G and the existence of a rational cross-section in G (for char k = 0, this has been proved earlier); this answers the other question cited in the epigraph. We also prove that the existence of a rational section is equivalent to the existence of a rational W-equivariant map T- - - >G/T where T is a maximal torus of G and W the Weyl group.