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## Феномен P=W

In this paper, we describe recent work towards the mirror P=W conjecture, which relates the weight filtration on the cohomology of a log Calabi–Yau manifold to the perverse Leray filtration on the cohomology of the homological mirror dual log Calabi–Yau manifold taken with respect to the affinization map. This conjecture extends the classical relationship between Hodge numbers of mirror dual compact Calabi–Yau manifolds, incorporating tools and ideas which appear in the fascinating and groundbreaking works of de Cataldo, Hausel, and Migliorini [1] and de Cataldo and Migliorini [2]. We give a broad overview of the motivation for this conjecture, recent results towards it, and describe how this result might arise from the SYZ formulation of mirror symmetry. This interpretation of the mirror P=W conjecture provides a possible bridge between the mirror P=W conjecture and the well-known P=W conjecture in non-Abelian Hodge theory.

We establish the relation of Berenstein–Kazhdan’s decoration function and Gross–Hacking–Keel–Kontsevich’s potential on the open double Bruhat cell in the base affine space G/N of a simple, simply connected, simply laced algebraic group G. As a byproduct we derive explicit identifications of polyhedral parametrization of canonical bases of the ring of regular functions on G/N arising from the tropicalizations of the potential and decoration function with the classical string and Lusztig parametrizations. In the appendix we construct maximal green sequences for the open double Bruhat cell in G/N which is a crucial assumption for Gross– Hacking–Keel–Kontsevich’s construction

In the framework of constructing mirror symmetric pairs of Calabi-Yau manifolds, P.Berglund, T.Hubsch and M.Henningson considered a pair (f,G) consisting of an invertible polynomial f and a finite abelian group G of its diagonal symmetries and associated to this pair a dual pair (f~, G~). A.Takahashi suggested a generalization of this construction to pairs (f, G) where G is a non-abelian group generated by some diagonal symmetries and some permutations of variables. In a previous paper, the authors showed that some mirror symmetry phenomena appear only under a special condition on the action of the group G: a parity condition. Here we consider the orbifold Euler characteristic of the Milnor fibre of a pair (f,G). We show that, for an abelian group G, the mirror symmetry of the orbifold Euler characteristics can be derived from the corresponding result about the equivariant Euler characteristics. For non-abelian symmetry groups we show that the orbifold Euler characteristics of certain extremal orbit spaces of the group G and the dual group G~ coincide. From this we derive that the orbifold Euler characteristics of the Milnor fibres of dual periodic loop polynomials coincide up to sign.

Quiver flag zero loci are subvarieties of quiver flag varieties cut out by sections of representation theoretic vector bundles. We prove the Abelian/non-Abelian correspondence in this context: this allows us to compute genus zero Gromov–Witten invariants of quiver flag zero loci. We determine the ample cone of a quiver flag variety, and disprove a conjecture of Craw. In the appendices (which can be found in the electronic supplementary material), which are joint work with Tom Coates and Alexander Kasprzyk, we use these results to find four-dimensional Fano manifolds that occur as quiver flag zero loci in ambient spaces of dimension up to 8, and compute their quantum periods. In this way, we find at least 141 new four-dimensional Fano manifolds.

Let k be a field of characteristic zero, let G be a connected reductive algebraic group over k and let g be its Lie algebra. Let k(G), respectively, k(g), be the field of k- rational functions on G, respectively, g. The conjugation action of G on itself induces the adjoint action of G on g. We investigate the question whether or not the field extensions k(G)/k(G)^G and k(g)/k(g)^G are purely transcendental. We show that the answer is the same for k(G)/k(G)^G and k(g)/k(g)^G, and reduce the problem to the case where G is simple. For simple groups we show that the answer is positive if G is split of type A_n or C_n, and negative for groups of other types, except possibly G_2. A key ingredient in the proof of the negative result is a recent formula for the unramified Brauer group of a homogeneous space with connected stabilizers. As a byproduct of our investigation we give an affirmative answer to a question of Grothendieck about the existence of a rational section of the categorical quotient morphism for the conjugating action of G on itself.

Let G be a connected semisimple algebraic group over an algebraically closed field k. In 1965 Steinberg proved that if G is simply connected, then in G there exists a closed irreducible cross-section of the set of closures of regular conjugacy classes. We prove that in arbitrary G such a cross-section exists if and only if the universal covering isogeny Ĝ → G is bijective; this answers Grothendieck's question cited in the epigraph. In particular, for char k = 0, the converse to Steinberg's theorem holds. The existence of a cross-section in G implies, at least for char k = 0, that the algebra k[G]G of class functions on G is generated by rk G elements. We describe, for arbitrary G, a minimal generating set of k[G]G and that of the representation ring of G and answer two Grothendieck's questions on constructing generating sets of k[G]G. We prove the existence of a rational (i.e., local) section of the quotient morphism for arbitrary G and the existence of a rational cross-section in G (for char k = 0, this has been proved earlier); this answers the other question cited in the epigraph. We also prove that the existence of a rational section is equivalent to the existence of a rational W-equivariant map T- - - >G/T where T is a maximal torus of G and W the Weyl group.