Автоматическое изменение права, применимого к супружеской собственности: бомба замедленного действия или панацея?
The paper considers the conflict arising from the automatic change of connecting factors regarding matrimonial property, and its practical consequences both for spouses and third par- ties. The author undertakes a comparative legal research to find out whether current conflict of laws rules comply with the re- quirements of ensuring the stability of civil turnover and meeting reasonable expectations of parties whose property rights could be violated in case the applicable law is changed.
Russian conflict of law rules determining choice of law applicable to marital relations related to foreign legislations came into force in 1995 and in force for 20 years. Within Russian legal doctrine the area has been researched in detail. Nevertheless, the analysis of conflict of law rules specified in the Family Code of Russian Federation remains relevant due to a large-scale reform of the norms of international private law in the Civil Code of the Russian Federation and the trends which are present in legislative regulation of international family relations in other countries. Chapter 7 of the Family Code The Application of Family Legislation to Family Relations with the Participation of Foreign Citizens and Persons without Citizenship provides a detailed system of rules determining competent law to regulate majour family relations. Most connecting factors are of bilateral nature and provides for the application of foreign laws. However, for the past 20 years international family relations experienced new regulation, which is evident in national codifications of International private law and in the European Union law. The current legislator extends the limits of autonomy of the parties in marital relations on the choice of applicable law, sets special connecting factors as to cohabitation and partnership, fixes detailed and differentiated choice of law rule. The paper concludes that Russian conflict of laws on international marital relations approved more than two decades ago requires significant update. The update is relevant to maximum transparency of volumes of conflict of law rules to make a more differentiated approach to marital relations, more detailed and arranged in categories connecting factors targeting the most correct determining the law, closest to the relation and making a decision optimally meeting specific circumstances of cases, broadening the possibility of the choice of applicable law by the parties on the issues of dissolution of marriage and family property relations. All the problems concerning children applying law the most favourable for child should dominate in conflict of laws doctrine in such circumstances.
This article examines the models of choice of law regulation of contracts involving consumers, while separately studying the model chosen by Russian and European legislators. The work explains the notions of passive and active consumers, and reflects the specificity of contract regulation with participation of both of these types of consumers. Based on the analysis of the norms and doctrines, the author determines a number of practical and theoretical problems, thus raising the issue of possibility of the cumulative application of protective imperative norms of several legal orders. It is yet unclear who initiates the application of imperative norms of the country of residence of the consumer – the consumer or the ex officio court. In addition to that, the author raises the question of exactly which imperative norms are subject to application – only those that directly pertain to consumer protection, or any imperative norms of the consumer’s country of residence. Another practical issue is the need for the professional side to consider and know the legislation on consumer protection of all countries in which they conduct business, which carries additional expenses for small and medium business, forcing it out of the international retail market
The object of the present article is an attempt to restore the names of representatives of the XVI century Belgian School of Realism, who have been “unjustly forgotten” in modern Private International Law doctrine – Nicolas Everhard, Pieter Peck and Johannes a Sande. These scholars are the founders of the Belgian Realism theory of conflicts-of-laws which anticipated the classic Dutch “comity” doctrine and provided the framework for the Anglo-American doctrine of the regulation of international civil relations. The theory of Belgian realism was first outlined by Everhard, Peck and Sande and was formed on the theory of statutes – the sole doctrine of Private International Law for 500 years. Belgian Realism is a stand-alone direction of the theory of statutes which triggered the process of a strongly territorial concept of conflict resolution between choice-of-law rules of different states. However, despite their outstanding contribution to the legal practice and doctrine of their time, aforementioned scholars are not known to modern jurisprudence. The article concludes that Everhard, Peck and Sande developed the choice-of-law rules which are now adopted by modern legislation; moreover, their researches may serve to development of international comity doctrine, which has been adopted by modern Private International Law.
The article is devoted to a particular form of freedom of assembly — the right to counter-demonstrate. The author underlines the value of this right as an element of democratic society, but also acknowledges the risk of violent actions among participants of opposing demonstrations. Due to this risk, the government may adopt adequate measures restricting the right to counter-demonstrate, certain types of which are analyzed in this paper.
Development of standards of international controllability is reviewed in the article. Institutional approach is applied to development of international legal regime of Energy Charter. Definition of controllability is connected to development of international standards of dispute settlement, which are described in the article in detail. In connection with controllability, Russian interest, defense of investment in European Union and ecological investment encouragement, is reviewed in the article.
мировое управление и управляемость, Мировая экономика, международное экономическое право, энергетическая хартия, International control and controllability, International economics, international economic law, Energy Charter
международное частное право; недвижимость; ; школа бартолистов; бартолисты; теория статутов; статуарная теория/