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## A new proof of Faber's intersection number conjecture

We give a new proof of Faber's intersection number conjecture concerning the top intersections in the tautological ring of the moduli space of curves $\M_g$. The proof is based on a very straightforward geometric and combinatorial computation with double ramification cycles.

In this paper we define a quantization of the Double Ramification Hierarchies using intersection numbers of the double ramification cycle, the full Chern class of the Hodge bundle and psi-classes with a given cohomological field theory. We provide effective recursion formulae which determine the full quantum hierarchy starting from just one Hamiltonian, the one associated with the first descendant of the unit of the cohomological field theory only. We study various examples which provide, in very explicit form, new (1+1)-dimensional integrable quantum field theories whose classical limits are well-known integrable hierarchies such as KdV, Intermediate Long Wave, Extended Toda, etc. Finally we prove polynomiality in the ramification multiplicities of the integral of any tautological class over the double ramification cycle.

In a previous paper we proved that after a simple transformation the generating series of the linear Hodge integrals on the moduli space of stable curves satisfies the hierarchy of the Intermediate Long Wave equation. In this paper we present a much shorter proof of this fact. Our new proof is based on an explicit formula for the one-point linear Hodge integrals that was found independently by Faber, Pandharipande and Ekedahl, Lando, Shapiro, Vainshtein.

We consider families of curve-to-curve maps that have no singularities except those of genus 0 stable maps and that satisfy a versality condition at each singularity. We provide a universal expression for the cohomology class Poincaré dual to the locus of any given singularity. Our expressions hold for any family of curve-to-curve maps satisfying the above properties.

Let k be a field of characteristic zero, let G be a connected reductive algebraic group over k and let g be its Lie algebra. Let k(G), respectively, k(g), be the field of k- rational functions on G, respectively, g. The conjugation action of G on itself induces the adjoint action of G on g. We investigate the question whether or not the field extensions k(G)/k(G)^G and k(g)/k(g)^G are purely transcendental. We show that the answer is the same for k(G)/k(G)^G and k(g)/k(g)^G, and reduce the problem to the case where G is simple. For simple groups we show that the answer is positive if G is split of type A_n or C_n, and negative for groups of other types, except possibly G_2. A key ingredient in the proof of the negative result is a recent formula for the unramified Brauer group of a homogeneous space with connected stabilizers. As a byproduct of our investigation we give an affirmative answer to a question of Grothendieck about the existence of a rational section of the categorical quotient morphism for the conjugating action of G on itself.

Let G be a connected semisimple algebraic group over an algebraically closed field k. In 1965 Steinberg proved that if G is simply connected, then in G there exists a closed irreducible cross-section of the set of closures of regular conjugacy classes. We prove that in arbitrary G such a cross-section exists if and only if the universal covering isogeny Ĝ → G is bijective; this answers Grothendieck's question cited in the epigraph. In particular, for char k = 0, the converse to Steinberg's theorem holds. The existence of a cross-section in G implies, at least for char k = 0, that the algebra k[G]G of class functions on G is generated by rk G elements. We describe, for arbitrary G, a minimal generating set of k[G]G and that of the representation ring of G and answer two Grothendieck's questions on constructing generating sets of k[G]G. We prove the existence of a rational (i.e., local) section of the quotient morphism for arbitrary G and the existence of a rational cross-section in G (for char k = 0, this has been proved earlier); this answers the other question cited in the epigraph. We also prove that the existence of a rational section is equivalent to the existence of a rational W-equivariant map T- - - >G/T where T is a maximal torus of G and W the Weyl group.