Analysis of the Differential Update Method for Control Information Dissemination in Wireless Networks
Various wireless networks scenarios involve dissemination of large amounts of control information. This limits the channel resources available for transmission of the user data. This problem is especially crucial in dense networks, sensor networks, and high-mobility networks (e.g., networks of vehicles and drones). Several methods for dissemination of control information are known. This study is focused on the promising method called differential update. The idea behind it is that control messages sent by stations should contain only the information modified since the transmission of the previous message. An analytical model of this method has been developed. It allows one to estimate the average amount of transmitted control information and the reliability and promptness of its delivery to neighboring stations. An algorithm for adaptive tuning of parameters of the differential update method has been developed on the basis of this model. Simulation results obtained with NS-3 simulator demonstrate that the proposed algorithm minimizes the amount of sent control information while satisfying the set of requirements on reliability and promptness of its delivery.
This work is dedicated to an attempt to answer the question, what for irony is needed. Usually it is considered to be just a literary device or a special way of conversation. However as any other source of language it has its grounds in the intention of the author and compared to this intention form, with the help of which irony effects its object. Is this way of effect interesting to philosophy – this is the question to answer. For this aim it will be useful to define the concept of irony. At first I will propone the two opposite point of view on irony, which were offered by Friedrich Schlegel and Hegel. Both these thinkers discern in irony a philosophical concept, although each in his way. Schlegel considered the nature of irony in its ability to show imperfection of all possible ways of expression infinite content. For Schlegel such vision meant a possibility to approach closer to this content. On the contrary Hegel saw in this effect of irony an origin of lightweight attitude to this content. What is the reason of such opposite interpretations of irony? Is this not irony itself? This is to be found out. In the end I will try to propose a new concept of irony and make some conclusions about it.
Approaches to the formation of service quality evaluation in 4G networks and to the evaluation of service quality in the networks of the new (fifth) generation are considered. The metrics and approaches to this evaluation are proposed, and evaluation criteria are determined. Possible ways of 5G networks development are described.
The softwarization of wireless networks has necessitated an overhaul of existing mobility management strategies. Specifically, mobility management is no longer constrained to function within the boundaries of a pre-existing radio access network. Softwarization of the network infrastructure allows resource configurations and associations to be changed on-demand, in a manner so as to support a least cost mobility management framework. To this end, this paper presents an optimal radio access network design framework augmented with user-specific clusters from the perspective of mobility management. The proposed framework is supported by a detailed mathematical model that characterizes user mobility, system traffic, and signaling costs. Performance evaluation is based on a cost comparison with conventional LTE/NR networks, and reinforces the fact that the framework proposed herein results in significant cost reduction, even in the face of changing network scenarios.
The smart monitoring system (SMS) vision relies on the use of ICT to efficiently manage and maximize the utility of network infrastructures and services in order to improve the quality of service and network performance. Many aspects of SMS projects are dynamic data driven application system where data from sensors monitoring the system state are used to drive computations that in turn can dynamically adapt and improve the monitoring process as the complex system evolves. In this context, a research and development of new paradigm of Distributed Big Data Driven Framework (DBDF) for monitoring data in mobile network infrastructures entails the ability to dynamically incorporate more accurate information for network monitoring and controlling purposes through obtaining real-time measurements from the base stations, user demands and claims, and other sensors (for weather conditions, etc.). The proposed framework consists of network probes, data parsing application, Message-Oriented Middleware, real-time and offline data models, Big Data storage and Decision layers., and Other data sources. Each Big Data layer might be implemented using comparative analysis of the most effective Big Data solutions. In addition, as a proof of concept, the roaming users detection model was created based on Apache Spark application. The model filters streaming protocols data, deserializes it into Json format and finally sends it to Kafka application. The experiments with the model demonstrated and acknowledged the capacities of the Apache Spark in building foundation for Big Data hub as a basic application for online mobile network data processing.
Generalized error-locating codes are discussed. An algorithm for calculation of the upper bound of the probability of erroneous decoding for known code parameters and the input error probability is given. Based on this algorithm, an algorithm for selection of the code parameters for a specified design and input and output error probabilities is constructed. The lower bound of the probability of erroneous decoding is given. Examples of the dependence of the probability of erroneous decoding on the input error probability are given and the behavior of the obtained curves is explained.
The dynamics of a two-component Davydov-Scott (DS) soliton with a small mismatch of the initial location or velocity of the high-frequency (HF) component was investigated within the framework of the Zakharov-type system of two coupled equations for the HF and low-frequency (LF) fields. In this system, the HF field is described by the linear Schrödinger equation with the potential generated by the LF component varying in time and space. The LF component in this system is described by the Korteweg-de Vries equation with a term of quadratic influence of the HF field on the LF field. The frequency of the DS soliton`s component oscillation was found analytically using the balance equation. The perturbed DS soliton was shown to be stable. The analytical results were confirmed by numerical simulations.
Radiation conditions are described for various space regions, radiation-induced effects in spacecraft materials and equipment components are considered and information on theoretical, computational, and experimental methods for studying radiation effects are presented. The peculiarities of radiation effects on nanostructures and some problems related to modeling and radiation testing of such structures are considered.