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## Variance reduction for MCMC methods via martingale representations

In this paper we propose an efficient variance reduction approach for additive functionals of Markov chains relying on a novel discrete time martingale representation. Our approach is fully non-asymptotic and does not require the knowledge of the stationary distribution (and even any type of ergodicity) or specific structure of the underlying density. By rigorously analyzing the convergence properties of the proposed algorithm, we show that its cost-to-variance product is indeed smaller than one of the naive algorithm. The numerical performance of the new method is illustrated for the Langevin-type Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) methods.

In this paper, we propose a unified analysis of variants of distributed SGD with arbitrary compressions and delayed updates. Our framework is general enough to cover different variants of quantized SGD, Error-Compensated SGD (EC-SGD), and SGD with delayed updates (D-SGD). Via single theorem, we derive the complexity results for all the methods that fit our framework. For the existing methods, this theorem gives the best-known complexity results. Moreover, using our general scheme, we develop new variants of SGD that combine variance reduction or arbitrary sampling with error feedback and quantization and derive the convergence rates for these methods beating the state-of-the-art results. In order to illustrate the strength of our framework, we develop 16 new methods that fit this. In particular, we propose the first method called EC-SGD-DIANA that is based on error-feedback for biased compression operator and quantization of gradient differences and prove the convergence guarantees showing that EC-SGD-DIANA converges to the exact optimum asymptotically in expectation with constant learning rate for both convex and strongly convex objectives when workers compute full gradients of their loss functions. Moreover, for the case when the loss function of the worker has the form of finite sum, we modified the method and got a new one called EC-LSVRG-DIANA which is the first distributed stochastic method with error feedback and variance reduction that converges to the exact optimum asymptotically in expectation with constant learning rate.

We consider triangular arrays of Markov chains that converge weakly to a diffusion process. Second order Edgeworth type expansions for transition densities are proved. The paper differs from recent results in two respects. We allow nonhomogeneous diffusion limits and we treat transition densities with time lag converging to zero. Small time asymptotics are motivated by statistical applications and by resulting approximations for the joint density of diffusion values at an increasing grid of points.

We consider triangular arrays of Markov chains that converge weakly to a diffusion process. We prove Edgeworth-type expansions of order *o(n-1-**δ),δ>0*, for transition densities. For this purpose we apply the parametrix method to represent the transition density as a functional of densities of sums of independent and identically distributed variables. Then we apply Edgeworth expansions to the densities. The resulting series gives our Edgeworth-type expansion for the Markov chain transition density.

This book covers the classical theory of Markov chains on general state-spaces as well as many recent developments. The theoretical results are illustrated by simple examples, many of which are taken from Markov Chain Monte Carlo methods. The book is self-contained, while all the results are carefully and concisely proven. Bibliographical notes are added at the end of each chapter to provide an overview of the literature.

In real situations, the work of project-oriented businesses takes place in conditions of high uncertainty. In particular, the moments of the receipt of project execution time, as well as costs and other factors are yutsya-random numbers with given or unknown to the laws of the distributions. Management capabilities offered by the use of stochastic process models of the current scenario management ene and port-felyami projects presented in this paper.

We consider certain spaces of functions on the circle, which naturally appear in harmonic analysis, and superposition operators on these spaces. We study the following question: which functions have the property that each their superposition with a homeomorphism of the circle belongs to a given space? We also study the multidimensional case.

We consider the spaces of functions on the m-dimensional torus, whose Fourier transform is p -summable. We obtain estimates for the norms of the exponential functions deformed by a C1 -smooth phase. The results generalize to the multidimensional case the one-dimensional results obtained by the author earlier in “Quantitative estimates in the Beurling—Helson theorem”, Sbornik: Mathematics, 201:12 (2010), 1811 – 1836.

We consider the spaces of function on the circle whose Fourier transform is p-summable. We obtain estimates for the norms of exponential functions deformed by a C1 -smooth phase.

This proceedings publication is a compilation of selected contributions from the “Third International Conference on the Dynamics of Information Systems” which took place at the University of Florida, Gainesville, February 16–18, 2011. The purpose of this conference was to bring together scientists and engineers from industry, government, and academia in order to exchange new discoveries and results in a broad range of topics relevant to the theory and practice of dynamics of information systems. Dynamics of Information Systems: Mathematical Foundation presents state-of-the art research and is intended for graduate students and researchers interested in some of the most recent discoveries in information theory and dynamical systems. Scientists in other disciplines may also benefit from the applications of new developments to their own area of study.