Механизм формирования товарных цен при системе кредитных денег
The pricing of goods on the market is influenced by the spontaneously emerging supply and demand. However, the spontaneity of pricing is based on internal laws, primarily on the law of value, which implies that the prices of goods are ultimately governed by the proportions of the distribution of hired labor among the branches of material production. The mechanisms of formation of the system of commodity prices can be understood on the basis of the use of the theory of chaos, which is based on the subordination of random processes of a certain regularity, which is called the “attаctor». The price of a commodity is the expression of its value basis in monetary terms, in the form of currency. Since modern credit money is a banknote that is not an image of gold, the price of a commodity depends on the value the market attaches to the modern monetary unit. The monetary unit is the sign of value, the marginal value of which (or the money attractor) is the quotient of dividing the total value of the goods by the number of currency in circulation.
The new approach to parity of prices is the subject of article. The base of this approach is estimation of parameters of model for comparison of prices between countries. The disparity of the prices is defined as a sharp deviation of the price from the parity. Milk is taken as an example. The model on which the parity of the prices is defined, has been developed for the longterm prices fore- casting. The realization of the certain scenario of development of a national economy is a base of such forecasting
This study analyzes the effects of reducing trade barriers in the context of the objectives of competition policy. Separate chapters are devoted to the assessment of the height of Russian trade barriers, the analysis of the impact of international trade on domestic prices and concentration of production.
The paper examines the structure, governance, and balance sheets of state-controlled banks in Russia, which accounted for over 55 percent of the total assets in the country's banking system in early 2012. The author offers a credible estimate of the size of the country's state banking sector by including banks that are indirectly owned by public organizations. Contrary to some predictions based on the theoretical literature on economic transition, he explains the relatively high profitability and efficiency of Russian state-controlled banks by pointing to their competitive position in such functions as acquisition and disposal of assets on behalf of the government. Also suggested in the paper is a different way of looking at market concentration in Russia (by consolidating the market shares of core state-controlled banks), which produces a picture of a more concentrated market than officially reported. Lastly, one of the author's interesting conclusions is that China provides a better benchmark than the formerly centrally planned economies of Central and Eastern Europe by which to assess the viability of state ownership of banks in Russia and to evaluate the country's banking sector.
The paper examines the principles for the supervision of financial conglomerates proposed by BCBS in the consultative document published in December 2011. Moreover, the article proposes a number of suggestions worked out by the authors within the HSE research team.