It was not until the early 18th century that Russia began to establish commercial and diplomatic relations with Western Europe. Peter the Great's foreign interests were focused toward the major states of Northern Europe, but the Iberian Peninsula was not wholly without significance for Russia. His westernization campaign extended across the Pyrenees. This tradition continued by the Russian empress Catherine II. Russian-Spanish relations, once terminated after the failure to connect Russia to the Viennese Alliance in 1730 , were reestablished since 1760. This article examines diplomatic relations between the two nations after Catherine II's ascension to the throne when Russian high-ranking diplomat, count Piotr Buturlin, was sent as an Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary minister to the Spanish court. Based on archival manuscripts (diplomatic and other correspondence) from the Archive of Foreign Policy of the Russian Empire, which were published for the first time, the research deals with the political and commercial relations between two nations during the early 1760s.
La política de los primeros Románov en Rusia estaba centrada en la “construcción” del Estado autócrata y la transformación de la Rusia zarista a la Rusia imperial con su creciente papel en el ámbito político internacional de Europa. Este papel nuevo se manifestó en el desarollo de los contactos diplomáticos en el siglo XVII, que llevaron al establecimiento de las primeras misiones diplomática rusas durante el reinado de Pedro el Grande y, entre ellos, la misión en Madrid. La historia de las relaciones entre Rusia y España de aquellos años ha atravesado varios períodos: hubo momentos de acercamiento y períodos de suspensión y de ausencia de contacto, pero como un hilo unía la diplomacia de la época de los primeros Románov con la diplomacia de la Rusia imperial de los siglos XVIII y XIX.
The aim of this publication is to give an overview of the guidelines of Brazil's foreign policy in a wide variety of areas. The country's present position on the world stage means that its diplomatic agenda has become increasingly complex. For this reason the systematic and continuous monitoring of the positions taken by Brazil at the international level has become a real challenge. This Handbook has been developed to meet this challenge.
At the present stage, cooperation between Mexico and Spain is multifaceted and effective. Both countries support economic and trade ties, strengthened with the assumption of power in Mexico of a member of the Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI), Enrique Peña Nieto, at the same time possessing the various mechanisms for bilateral dialogue and assistance, which together form one of the most multifaceted institutional structures in the world. At a time when the Mexican economy fell under "the destabilizing effect" due to the policy of the new U.S. president Donald Trump in relation to Mexico, that threatens political and economic achievements of Mexican– Spanish relations, it is extremely important to study the current state of affairs, all the key moments of their relationships, given that today the status of a natural ally with Spain is one of the central tasks for Mexico.
The chapter examines the period of restoration of diplomatic relations between Spain and Russia in 1856 and the role of the Russian diplomat MA. Golitsyn during his stay in Spain as a Russian envoy (1856-1860).