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Regular version of the site

Article

The first inorganic mitogens: Cerium oxide and cerium fluoride nanoparticles stimulate planarian regeneration via neoblastic activation

Materials Science and Engineering C. 2019. Vol. 104. P. 109924.
Ermakov A., Popov A., Ermakova O., Ivanova O., Baranchikov A., Kamenskikh K., Shekunova T., Schcherbakov A., Popova N., Ivanov Vladimir.

We report the first experimental evidence for the mitogenic action of cerium(IV) oxide and cerium(III) fluoride nanoparticles (CONs and CFNs) on the regeneration of a whole organism – freshwater flatworms Schmidtea mediterranea (planarian). Both types of cerium-containing nanoparticles are shown to be a highly potent mitogen for planaria. Both CONs and CFNs, in micro- and nanomolar concentrations, markedly accelerate planarian blastema growth, due to the enhancement of cellular proliferation, causing an increase in the mitotic index and in the quantity of blastema cells in regenerating planaria. CONs provided maximum activity at concentrations which were two orders of magnitude lower than those for CeF3. The valence state of cerium in cerium-containing nanoparticles plays a significant role in the planarian regeneration mechanism: CeO2 nanoparticles containing predominantly Ce4+ species presumably scavenge wound induced reactive oxygen species and moderately activate gene expression processes, while the regenerative action of CeF3 nanoparticles containing only Ce3+ species is manifested in the pronounced expression of the genes involved in cell division, differentiation and migration. This is the first report on the effect of cerium-containing nanoparticles on tissue regeneration in vivo, further revealing the mechanisms of their biological action, which enhances the possibility of their use in cellular technologies.