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## Invariant Spanning Trees for Quadratic Rational Maps

We study Thurston equivalence classes of quadratic post-critically finite branched coverings. For these maps, we introduce and study invariant spanning trees. We give a computational procedure for searching for invariant spanning trees. This procedure uses bisets over the fundamental group of a punctured sphere. We also introduce a new combinatorial invariant of Thurston classes—the ivy graph.

Through the use of methods of synergetics - an interdisciplinary approach in modern science that investigates common features of complex systems of various origins - the monograph analyzes complex phenomena in economics. The author shows that modern economies are characterized by multiple synergetic features, with studies of economic time series providing the grounds for assuming an important role of synergetic effects in actual trajectories of economic development. Significant attention is dedicated in the book to uncovering the basic principles of a synergetic approach to modern economics, and to the demonstration of the key concepts of synergetics, as applied to economics.

The monograph has been written for an economic readership in the first place, although experts from other fields of knowledge can also find it interesting. Some of the hypotheses and conclusions suggested in the book can also pose interest for government officials.

Through the use of methods of synergetics - an interdisciplinary approach in modern science that investigates common features of complex systems of various origins - the monograph analyzes complex phenomena in economics. The author shows that modern economies are characterized by multiple synergetic features, with studies of economic time series providing the grounds for assuming an important role of synergetic effects in actual trajectories of economic development. Significant attention is dedicated in the book to uncovering the basic principles of a synergetic approach to modern economics, and to the demonstration of the key concepts of synergetics, as applied to economics.

The monograph has been written for an economic readership in the first place, although experts from other fields of knowledge can also find it interesting. Some of the hypotheses and conclusions suggested in the book can also pose interest for government officials.

Polynomials from the closure of the principal hyperbolic domain of the cubic connectedness locus have some specific properties, which were studied in a recent paper by the authors. The family of (affine conjugacy classes of) all polynomials with these properties is called the Main Cubioid. In this paper, we describe a combinatorial counterpart of the Main Cubioid --- the set of invariant laminations that can be associated to polynomials from the Main Cubioid.

The so-called “pinched disk” model of the Mandelbrot set is due to A. Douady, J. H. Hubbard and W. P. Thurston. It can be described in the language of geodesic laminations. The combinatorial model is the quotient space of the unit disk under an equivalence relation that, loosely speaking, “pinches” the disk in the plane (whence the name of the model). The significance of the model lies in particular in the fact that this quotient is planar and therefore can be easily visualized. The conjecture that the Mandelbrot set is actually homeomorphic to this model is equivalent to the celebrated MLC conjecture stating that the Mandelbrot set is locally connected.For parameter spaces of higher degree polynomials no combinatorial model is known. One possible reason may be that the higher degree analog of the MLC conjecture is known to be false. We investigate to which extent a geodesic lamination is determined by the location of its critical sets and when different choices of critical sets lead to essentially the same lamination. This yields models of various parameter spaces of laminations similar to the “pinched disk” model of the Mandelbrot set.

This proceedings publication is a compilation of selected contributions from the “Third International Conference on the Dynamics of Information Systems” which took place at the University of Florida, Gainesville, February 16–18, 2011. The purpose of this conference was to bring together scientists and engineers from industry, government, and academia in order to exchange new discoveries and results in a broad range of topics relevant to the theory and practice of dynamics of information systems. Dynamics of Information Systems: Mathematical Foundation presents state-of-the art research and is intended for graduate students and researchers interested in some of the most recent discoveries in information theory and dynamical systems. Scientists in other disciplines may also benefit from the applications of new developments to their own area of study.

A model for organizing cargo transportation between two node stations connected by a railway line which contains a certain number of intermediate stations is considered. The movement of cargo is in one direction. Such a situation may occur, for example, if one of the node stations is located in a region which produce raw material for manufacturing industry located in another region, and there is another node station. The organization of freight traﬃc is performed by means of a number of technologies. These technologies determine the rules for taking on cargo at the initial node station, the rules of interaction between neighboring stations, as well as the rule of distribution of cargo to the ﬁnal node stations. The process of cargo transportation is followed by the set rule of control. For such a model, one must determine possible modes of cargo transportation and describe their properties. This model is described by a ﬁnite-dimensional system of diﬀerential equations with nonlocal linear restrictions. The class of the solution satisfying nonlocal linear restrictions is extremely narrow. It results in the need for the “correct” extension of solutions of a system of diﬀerential equations to a class of quasi-solutions having the distinctive feature of gaps in a countable number of points. It was possible numerically using the Runge–Kutta method of the fourth order to build these quasi-solutions and determine their rate of growth. Let us note that in the technical plan the main complexity consisted in obtaining quasi-solutions satisfying the nonlocal linear restrictions. Furthermore, we investigated the dependence of quasi-solutions and, in particular, sizes of gaps (jumps) of solutions on a number of parameters of the model characterizing a rule of control, technologies for transportation of cargo and intensity of giving of cargo on a node station.

Let k be a field of characteristic zero, let G be a connected reductive algebraic group over k and let g be its Lie algebra. Let k(G), respectively, k(g), be the field of k- rational functions on G, respectively, g. The conjugation action of G on itself induces the adjoint action of G on g. We investigate the question whether or not the field extensions k(G)/k(G)^G and k(g)/k(g)^G are purely transcendental. We show that the answer is the same for k(G)/k(G)^G and k(g)/k(g)^G, and reduce the problem to the case where G is simple. For simple groups we show that the answer is positive if G is split of type A_n or C_n, and negative for groups of other types, except possibly G_2. A key ingredient in the proof of the negative result is a recent formula for the unramified Brauer group of a homogeneous space with connected stabilizers. As a byproduct of our investigation we give an affirmative answer to a question of Grothendieck about the existence of a rational section of the categorical quotient morphism for the conjugating action of G on itself.

Let G be a connected semisimple algebraic group over an algebraically closed field k. In 1965 Steinberg proved that if G is simply connected, then in G there exists a closed irreducible cross-section of the set of closures of regular conjugacy classes. We prove that in arbitrary G such a cross-section exists if and only if the universal covering isogeny Ĝ → G is bijective; this answers Grothendieck's question cited in the epigraph. In particular, for char k = 0, the converse to Steinberg's theorem holds. The existence of a cross-section in G implies, at least for char k = 0, that the algebra k[G]G of class functions on G is generated by rk G elements. We describe, for arbitrary G, a minimal generating set of k[G]G and that of the representation ring of G and answer two Grothendieck's questions on constructing generating sets of k[G]G. We prove the existence of a rational (i.e., local) section of the quotient morphism for arbitrary G and the existence of a rational cross-section in G (for char k = 0, this has been proved earlier); this answers the other question cited in the epigraph. We also prove that the existence of a rational section is equivalent to the existence of a rational W-equivariant map T- - - >G/T where T is a maximal torus of G and W the Weyl group.