This polemical article treats the issue, whether discourses of ethnonational identity of political communities emerged, in fact, in the modern period, as it is frequently claimed under the impact of “constructionists” in the area of “nationalism studies”. Or they got formed in Middle Ages already? Evidence from the French medieval culture allows to insist that ideologists in the epoch of the French 1789 revolution shared mental constructions which originated in Middle Ages. In this respect “modernity” remains “medieval”, and difference between both turns out to be very illusive.
Notes of a Cavalryman (Zapiski kavalerista, 1915–1916) by Nikolai Gumilev are dedicated to the poet’s participation in World War I and reveal a deep influence of Tolstoy’s novel War and Peace. A brief analysis of the work leads to the conclusion that Gumilev on a superficial level often argued with Tolstoy’s concept of war. Nevertheless, on a deeper level he took cues from Nikolai Rostov not only by getting in the same situations as Tolstoy’s hero, but also by resembling Rostov’s psychological type. This consequently allows us to claim that during World War I, Nikolai Rostov was a model according to which Gumilev fashioned his own life.
This article analyzes ideological and symbolic components of political thought of M.N.Epstein. It considers the influence of the representations of American and Russian past on his political outlook, as well as the brief comparative analysis of political philosophy of M.N.Epstein and M.K.Mamardashvili regarding the categories of ‘national’ and ‘universal’.