Отчет Хоффмана: психологи и пытки. Этический урок для психологов
The present paper introduces the readers to the Hoffman report — an independent attorney report on American Psychological Association (APA) officials’ participation in institutionalizing and developing torture techniques that were used to interrogate the prisoners of the secret Department of Defense prisons (Guantanamo, Abu Ghraib, etc.). People in charge of the APA were shown to have changed the ethical standards and APA regulations in such a way as to enable psychologists to participate in the so-called enhanced interrogations. We present the context of the report and the key findings and conclusions. We discuss the reaction of the psychological community and cite a number of papers that analyze the report from the theoretical and empirical standpoint, and reflect on the causes of the events. This situation can be viewed as a precaution for Russian psychologists likewise in making ethical decisions. Conclusion: Ethical codes do not constitute ethics per se nor do they protect from possible ethical violations, partly because abusers often are not just those who know the codes, but also those who write them.
The scientific and practical guide «Anticorruption Ethics and Service Behavior» is devoted to the analysis of anti-corruption ethical norms developed by foreign and domestic legal doctrine and practice, as well as ways to enhance the impact of ethical standards on official (conduct) behavior of state and municipal employees, employees of state companies and corporations and other organizations. The authors of the scientific and practical manual proceeded from the hypothesis that ethical norms can complement the norms of law in resolving disputable behavioral and moral issues and collisions that arise in the current official activity. At the same time, the potential for the use of ethical regulators depends not only on the characteristics of the domestic legal system, but also on the problem aspects of the legal understanding and legal awareness of the addressees of ethical norms. In this regard, the scientific and practical manual contains proposals and recommendations to expand the impact of anti-corruption ethical standards on the official behavior of employees. For researchers, practicing lawyers, representatives of the business community, teachers, students and graduate students of law faculties and universities, as well as for all who are interested in the issues of combating corruption.
Codes of ethics are believed to be one of the most effective tools of moral regulation in business environment. At the same time, they have long been applied effectively at leading universities of the world. We introduce the analysis of the key theses the codes ethics of leading international universities. The main directions of ethical regulation of the university environment are distinguished. We make conclusions about similarities and differences in approaches to ethical regulation in leading international universities as well as in academic and business environment.
The article is devoted to a critically important, in the author’s opinion, issue of the ethical regulation of public servants’ o^ cial behavior. He considers the complex of ethical-legal mechanisms as one of the most eb ective ways in order to correct the obviously unsatisfactory current situation of public life in this c eld. As long as it is not only Russia’s trouble and many other countries pay considerable attention to ethical aspects, the author re] ects the situation in the frames of a broader theoretical position and also addresses the international experience. In particular, he gives much attention to Canada, where the ethical regulation of public service is developed su^ ciently well and the country has achieved serious success in this respect. Ethical codes are considered as «moral navigators» in the contemporary complicated world, because vitality and legitimity of a political system much depends on whether political institutions and behavior of high rank public o^ cials correspond to the prevailed public values and ideals, accord with the norms and standards of public morality, or they do not. A degree of public trust to holders of public posts depends critically on it. \ e administrative ethical codes 31 Obolonsky Alexander V. Ethics and responsibility of dib erent levels and the «ethical infrastructure» that provide their fulc llment have been thoroughly analyzed. Special attention is paid to the role of the leader, to moral self-restrictions of public servants and to exercising control over them. \ e balance between moral and legal norms has been considered in details, as well as the modern situation of Russia in this c eld.
The article attempts to apply the Ibarra-Kitsuse constructionist model of rhetorical idioms, counterrhetorics, motifs and claims-making styles to the LiveJournal posts about police brutality in Russia. The analysis of the blog posts evoked by the death of detainee Sergei Nazarov after rape tortures in Dalny police station (city of Kazan) in March, 2012 reveals that Nazarov’s case is considered by bloggers in the context of violence by the Russian police as a whole, that police brutality is interpreted by the blogosphere as a wide-spread phenomenon and that Nazarov’s death was the catalyst for the mainstreaming of latent tension. The main rhetorical idioms used by bloggers are the rhetoric of endangerment (danger to citizens by the police), the rhetoric of entitlement (concerning ex-prisoners) and the rhetoric of calamity (concerning Vladimir Putin’s presidency).
Students' internet usage attracts the attention of many researchers in different countries. Differences in internet penetration in diverse countries lead us to ask about the interaction of medium and culture in this process. In this paper we present an analysis based on a sample of 825 students from 18 Russian universities and discuss findings on particularities of students' ICT usage. On the background of the findings of the study, based on data collected in 2008-2009 year during a project "A сross-cultural study of the new learning culture formation in Germany and Russia", we discuss the problem of plagiarism in Russia, the availability of ICT features in Russian universities and an evaluation of the attractiveness of different categories of ICT usage and gender specifics in the use of ICT.
The results of cross-cultural research of implicit theories of innovativeness among students and teachers, representatives of three ethnocultural groups: Russians, the people of the North Caucasus (Chechens and Ingushs) and Tuvinians (N=804) are presented. Intergroup differences in implicit theories of innovativeness are revealed: the ‘individual’ theories of innovativeness prevail among Russians and among the students, the ‘social’ theories of innovativeness are more expressed among respondents from the North Caucasus, Tuva and among the teachers. Using the structural equations modeling the universal model of values impact on implicit theories of innovativeness and attitudes towards innovations is constructed. Values of the Openness to changes and individual theories of innovativeness promote the positive relation to innovations. Results of research have shown that implicit theories of innovativeness differ in different cultures, and values make different impact on the attitudes towards innovations and innovative experience in different cultures.