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Article

Management in a complex scenario: World Cup, alternative stadiums and demand for tickets

This paper analyses a particular managerial problem that sports clubs face from time to time. The aim is to identify the effects that alternative stadiums and stadiums' features have in ticket prices and demand. Simultaneous equations models by three‐stage least square estimator using instrumental variables is the method employed. The findings evidence that alternative stadiums negatively impact attendances, but clubs can offset this effect playing at high‐quality alternative stadiums. Results also evidence that fans care about security levels. Some policies for football leagues are discussed as limits in the use of alternative stadiums, league fixtures and hard requirements concerning security.