Анализ введенных субъектами РФ механизмов преференций для НКО, как исполнителей общественно полезных услуг
The purpose of this work is to reveal the presence (absence) of the impact of the preferential mechanisms introduced by the subjects of the Russian Federation for socially beneficial services providers (hereafter SBSP), on the increase of the budgetary funds allocated for subsidizing non-profit organizations (hereafter NPOs) in social sector.
To identify the dependence, we develop a methodology correlating the legal acts adopted by the subjects of the Russian Federation to introduce preferential mechanisms for SBSP and the volumes of subsidies to NPOs.
The results of the study showed that although it was not a long time since the adoption of the Decree of the President of the Russian Federation No. 398 dated August 8, 2016, approving the priority areas for the socially beneficial services provision, some sub-sectors of the social sphere experienced positive effects of the introduced preferential mechanisms for SBSP. The study identifies the budget areas where the largest number of the Russian Federation subjects increased the share of subsidies for NPOs in the total amount of expenditures for the corresponding area, as well as the changes in the Russian regions rating according to this indicator.
To expand the engagement of NPOs as SBSP, it is proposed to amend regional legislation and establish specific preferences for SBSP, as well as to include this issue in the Methodological Recommendations on the implementation of support mechanisms for socially oriented non-profit organizations, introduced by the Ministry of Economic Development of the Russian Federation for public authorities and local governments.
The paper demonstrates the potential of the stochastic frontier-based methods of performance assessment of non-profit associations. They are commonly used for productivity analysis and could serve as an adequate tool for such assessment, especially when dealing with numerous non-profits pursuing identical and clearly identified objectives. A case in point are homeowners associations (HOA), which are formed within apartment buildings to manage common property. Data was collected by a survey of 82 HOAs in Russias national capital Moscow and a large industrial city of Perm. Different techniques and robust checks are applied, exogenous parameters that influence HOA efficiency are revealed. Among those, physical conditions of the housing stock and ability of tenants to resolve the collective action problem in operating housing infrastructure were shown to be of primary importance. Overall, HOA, despite of their appeal and successful performance in developed nations, are not necessarily a superior option in countries and societies where civic capacity is in short supply, and housing stock suffers from wear and tear.
The concept of civil society has taken on a new dimension in connection with the development of the sector of non-profit organizations, or "the third sector". Under the non-profit (third) sector is the collection of the (system of) population groups and organizations, do not put before ourselves the purpose of increasing personal income directly through participation in the work of such groups and organizations or through their ownership of (non-profit organisations or NGOs). The main function of such organizations is, to one degree or another, the expansion of the limits of freedom and empowerment of the population of authority, involvement of the public in the process of social change, the development of social protection.
The research consists of main personnel motivators in for-profit and non-profit organizations. The analysis is based on an expert survey of personnel. The main purpose of the research is to define similarities and differences of motivation in these two types of organizations.
The paper explores the dynamics of the Russian non-profit organizations contribution to the national economy and their development tendencies. Statistical data on national accounts and FIRA PRO database of 1995-2012 has been analyzed in terms of the share of GDP and industry output accounted for by non-profits and the activity of non-profit organizations in the regions of Russia. The findings indicate that a considerable decline in these indicators. Significant discrepancies between changes in the activity of non-profits and other producers show a possibility of additional nonprofit development factors. It is concluded that there are factors of nonprofit sustainability during the time of financial crises.
This article focuses on pricing of goods and services by a non-profit organization. The authors presented a list of basic pricing methods, the most widely used in NPO’s. These features allow the methods to generate a list of recommendations for their practical application.
The paper examines the structure, governance, and balance sheets of state-controlled banks in Russia, which accounted for over 55 percent of the total assets in the country's banking system in early 2012. The author offers a credible estimate of the size of the country's state banking sector by including banks that are indirectly owned by public organizations. Contrary to some predictions based on the theoretical literature on economic transition, he explains the relatively high profitability and efficiency of Russian state-controlled banks by pointing to their competitive position in such functions as acquisition and disposal of assets on behalf of the government. Also suggested in the paper is a different way of looking at market concentration in Russia (by consolidating the market shares of core state-controlled banks), which produces a picture of a more concentrated market than officially reported. Lastly, one of the author's interesting conclusions is that China provides a better benchmark than the formerly centrally planned economies of Central and Eastern Europe by which to assess the viability of state ownership of banks in Russia and to evaluate the country's banking sector.
The paper examines the principles for the supervision of financial conglomerates proposed by BCBS in the consultative document published in December 2011. Moreover, the article proposes a number of suggestions worked out by the authors within the HSE research team.
The article is devoted to the study of the authoritarianism prevalent in the mass consciousness of Russians. The article describes a new approach to the consideration of the authoritarian syndrome as the effects of the cultural trauma as a result of political and socio-cultural transformation of society. The article shows the dynamics of the symptoms of the authoritarianism, which appear in the mass consciousness of Russians from 1993 to 2011. This paper proposes a package of measures aimed at reducing the level of the authoritarianism in Russian society.
This work looks at a model of spatial election competition with two candidates who can spend effort in order to increase their popularity through advertisement. It is shown that under certain condition the political programs of the candidates will be different. The work derives the comparative statics of equilibrium policy platform and campaign spending with respect the distribution of voter policy preferences and the proportionality of the electoral system. In particular, it is whown that the equilibrium does not exist if the policy preferences are distributed over too narrow an interval.
The article examines "regulatory requirements" as a subject of state control over business in Russia. The author deliberately does not use the term "the rule of law". The article states that a set of requirements for business is wider than the legislative regulation.
First, the article analyzes the regulatory nature of the requirements, especially in the technical field. The requirements are considered in relation to the rule of law. The article explores approaches to the definition of regulatory requirements in Russian legal science. The author analyzes legislation definitions for a set of requirements for business. The author concludes that regulatory requirements are not always identical to the rule of law. Regulatory requirements are a set of obligatory requirements for entrepreneurs’ economic activity. Validation failure leads to negative consequences.
Second, the article analyzes the problems of the regulatory requirements in practice. Lack of information about the requirements, their irrelevance and inconsistency are problems of the regulatory requirements in Russia.
Many requirements regulating economic activity are not compatible with the current development level of science and technology. The problems are analyzed on the basis of the Russian judicial practice and annual monitoring reports by Higher School of Economics.
Finally, the author provides an approach to the possible solution of the regulatory requirements’ problem. The author proposes to create a nationwide Internet portal about regulatory requirements. The portal should contain full information about all regulatory requirements. The author recommends extending moratorium on the use of the requirements adopted by the bodies and organizations of the former USSR government.