Literacy and Education among the Nobility in Post-Petrine Russia
Educational reforms and introduction of compulsory schooling for nobility are rightly counted among the most import important changes introduced by Peter I in Russia. This article employs a large sample of records from the Heraldry, a government agency in charge of registering nobles for their mandatory service, to assess the spread of literacy among the first post-Petrine generation of the Russian elite and to explore the factors that affected one’ likelihood of being literate. The data suggests that literacy indeed has become the norm among the nobles, and illiteracy, even though not uncommon, came to predominantly be associated with relative social marginality.
This is a collection of essays on the semiotics of history, a product of the 30 years collaboration of the two co-authors. All the articles are devoted to the history of the Russian culture, treating it not as an isolated phenomenon, but as an integral part of the world culture. Semiotic analysis of various fonts allows to define both universal and pecular characteristics in the history of Rusian culture.
The book includes different documents on the history of Novgorod in the age of Peter the Great taken from the Historical Archive of Saint-Petersburg Institute of History of the Russian Academy of Sciences.
In the world's leading countries the problem of appearing of schools with bad learning outcomes where mostly children from families with a low socio-economic status go is regarded nowadays as one of the key problems in educational policy. In order to solve it, laws are passed and national strategies are adopted. This survey is intended to describe main approaches and problem solution tools that are used as part of national strategies. Its relevancy is determined by the fact that support of schools working in the challenging social context and performing poorly appeared on the agenda of the Russian educational policy. World experience of researches and practical interventions in the area under question may be useful for the national education.
The article concerns the problem of the Russian absolutist monarchy of the XVIII - the beginning of XX-th centuries in a comparative perspective. The social function of absolutism consisted in national integration, cultural unification and social transformation of traditional society by using of legal and coercive measures. The crucial problem is the changing role of the bureaucracy which could be the main protagonist of reforms or, just the opposite – its main opponent. From this point of view the author summarizes positive and negative aspects of absolutist reforms making outlook on the comparative experience of other absolutist empires of Europe and Asia.
Autobiografical texts, survived from the late Middle Ages, allowed to the author analysing several amusing cases of complex relations between German noblemen of different generations.