“Multi-Homing by all Means”: Russian Competition Policy Towards Digital Platforms
Competition enforcement towards digital platforms in Russia concentrates on the issues of multi-homing for inter-platform competition (competition between digital platforms) and non-discriminatory access for intra-platform competition (competition on digital platforms). Both in antitrust enforcement (Google-2015 and Microsoft-2017 cases in Russia) and under merger approval (Bayer-Monsanto-2018 and Uber-Yandex-2017) theory of harm is based on both anticompetitive exclusionary effects and exploitative effects in adjacent markets. Typical remedies are ‘non-discriminatory access’ and ban on any form of single-homing clauses. Under international merger approval, competition authority may elaborate remedies to support the upgrading in adjacent markets. While Russian competition enforcement towards digital platforms does not contradict to overall attitude to the platforms in competition law and economics (while being criticized for protectionist intend).