Альф Росс о понятии и действительности права: реалистический подход
Alf Ross is one of the most prominent representatives of Scandinavian legal realism and one of the main participants of the discussion on legal validity. This article explores the main points of his realistic legal concept. Ross uses a unique mixture of the main tenets of logical positivism and the Uppsala school of philosophy to suggest a new project of theoretical legal science, which implies, among other things, that its key element is specific legal “validity” — in interrelation with legal “effectiveness” — and not the concept of law. This brings the author to the necessity of a rather thorough linguistic inquiry of various Russian, English, Danish, etc. terms related to the concept of validity, which leads to the conclusion that correct Russian translation of Ross’s terms “gyldighet” and “gælden” is “dejstvitel’nost’” and “dejstvennost’”, respectively. Together with the analysis of Ross’s ideas about the province and proper methodology of jurisprudence this allows the author to fully and accurately reconstruct such aspects of Ross’s legal theory as content and role of the concept of law as well as realistic concept of legal validity. The author argues that specific interrelation between “validity” and “effectiveness” — and its underlying principles — is also a key to understanding the whole Ross’s concept of new realistic jurisprudence, which encompass a differentiation between legal knowledge and legal politics, an empirical approach to legal cognition, reducing the gap between legal theory and practice. Other topics, specifically addressed in this article, are Hart — Ross critical exchange and Ross as a legal realist.
In the work are summarized the basic tenets of the theory of validity of legal norms; the ideas of Kelsen about legal validity are critically analyzed.
The author criticizes the neorealist conception of legal interpretation defended by Michel Troper. It is stressed that the neorealist approach to interpretation does not allow proving its own theses from a scientific standpoint. Subjectivist and voluntarist understanding of interpretation leads neorealism to a sociological conception of law. This understanding does not catch the most essential characteristics of legal phenomena.
The author differs several approaches to law in classical eurasianism. These distinctions, on his opinion, are based on metalegal grounds – on «alleinheit» theory in the writings of L.P. Karsavin and on «phenomenological method» in the works of N.N. Alexeev
The concept of legal structure is important for the commucative legal theories, because it helps to find out basic elements in Law, which cannot be reformed intentionally by governmental activity. The paper focuses on the model of legal structure in the writings of Russian legal scholar Nicholas Alexeyev (1879–1964), which affected the communicative theory of Andrei Polyakov. The article analyses structural method in the Eurasianist writings, “legal structure” in the legacy of Alexeyev and the development of this concept in the context of Russian Eurasianism during 1920s and 1930s. The transpositive “legal structure” reveals new sides in prism of views on the Eurasia’s uniqueness.
Alexeyev, who turned to the Eurasianism in 1926th is not Eurasianist sensu stricto. However, the “spaceness” of this “structure” is similar to Eurasinist views on Russia-Eurasia as a specific place. Eurasianists also favoured Alexeyev’s rejection of reduction of Law to other basis. They denied the attempts to reduce Eurasia to Europe or Asia; Alexeyev did the similar things according to Law; he refused the reduction of Law to “sovereign’s command”, “form of freedom” or “social experience”. These similarities could be explained by the closeness between Eurasianist protostructuralism and phenomenological method of Alexeyev. This closeness influenced the development of Alexeyev’s legal views in frames of the Eurasian movement.
In dieser Festschrift für Werner Krawietz greifen Kolleginnen und Kollegen, Schüler und Freunde aus aller Welt, die ihm in vielfältiger Weise verbunden sind, zentrale Fragestellungen auf, die ihn wissenschaftlich seit Langem bewegen. Mit der Positivität des Rechts wird an seine rechtswissenschaftliche Dissertation zum Thema »Das positive Recht und seine Funktion. Kategoriale und methodologische Überlegungen zu einer funktionalen Rechtstheorie« angeknüpft. Da für ihn aber eine Engführung der rechtswissenschaftlichen Forschung auf das positive Recht zu kurz greifen müsste, hat er sich mit seinen Forschungen schon frühzeitig dem komplexen Verhältnis von Normativität, Positivität und Faktizität des Rechts gewidmet. Hinzu tritt ferner das institutionelle Rechtsdenken, welches für Werner Krawietz als Amtsnachfolger von Helmut Schelsky auf dem Lehrstuhl für Rechtssoziologie, Rechts- und Sozialphilosophie an der Rechtswissenschaftlichen Fakultät der Westfälischen Wilhelms-Universität Münster höchst folgenreich geworden ist. Schelskys Konzeption von Recht und Gesellschaft hat Krawietz in einer institutionentheoretisch gesättigten Theorie und Soziologie des Rechts fruchtbar gemacht.
The article is devoted to a particular form of freedom of assembly — the right to counter-demonstrate. The author underlines the value of this right as an element of democratic society, but also acknowledges the risk of violent actions among participants of opposing demonstrations. Due to this risk, the government may adopt adequate measures restricting the right to counter-demonstrate, certain types of which are analyzed in this paper.
Development of standards of international controllability is reviewed in the article. Institutional approach is applied to development of international legal regime of Energy Charter. Definition of controllability is connected to development of international standards of dispute settlement, which are described in the article in detail. In connection with controllability, Russian interest, defense of investment in European Union and ecological investment encouragement, is reviewed in the article.
мировое управление и управляемость, Мировая экономика, международное экономическое право, энергетическая хартия, International control and controllability, International economics, international economic law, Energy Charter
международное частное право; недвижимость; ; школа бартолистов; бартолисты; теория статутов; статуарная теория/