Управление требованиями к ответственным системам. Обзор решений.
Requirements are an integral part of any software and hardware development process. The area where requirements become significantly important is the development of safety-critical systems which usage may cause risks on human lives. So the process of their development is often maintained by certification centers that requires from developers to meet the best practices supporting the safety of end product. This article reveals one possible approach to requirements management that was based on experience of embedded hardware development for civil avionics. This approach is now spread over different areas. Authors list the set of common tasks related to given approach. They also define the set of software features used to reduce the complexity of development and to mitigate risks. Authors review set of existing solutions in requirements management area using the listed features. In this article it is also defined on how given features can be applied within the given approach.
Publications on modeling of project management systems dynamics are reviewed. Studies analyzed mainly consider dynamics of project management systems in the organizational environment of projects implementation. History of project management dynamics modeling is presented as well as classification of existing dynamic models. The review includes papers on the following groups of modeling methods: for optimal and sustainable project scheduling, for discrete event simulation and for macro-modeling based on system dynamics. Also analyzed are current trends of modeling methods development in reference to research of dynamics of project management systems.
This paper presents an approach for developing Linux interface standards aimed to improve portability of applications among different Linux distributions. The approach is based on usage of database-driven informational system that simplifies creation and maintenance of interface standards by standardization committees and their usage by application and distribution developers. A logical model of interfaces between Linux applications and distributions is described which is used to design schema of the informational system's database.
In the paper an approach to modeling of requirements management process associated with IT projects is considered. The requirements management model includes three stages. The first stage is related with the choice of business requirements, which are described in the project solution and define the project scope. The second stage includes development of a model that is associated with accepting, rejecting, clarification or classification as ‘additional task’ for every of incoming user requirements. On the third stage for all the accepted user requirements priorities of system requirements are formulated; these priorities are subsequently used for project planning. The decision making models are based on the methods of analytic hierarchy process (AHP) and analytic network process (ANP), as well as on SuperDecisions decision support system.
Pressing questions of IV All-Russian scientific-practical conference "Legal regulation in the area of traceability"
Business Process Management (BPM) has become one of the most widely used approaches for the design of modern organizational and information systems. The conscious treatment of business processes as significant corporate assets has facilitated substantial improvements in organizational performance but is also used to ensure the conformance of corporate activities. This Handbook presents in two volumes the contemporary body of knowledge as articulated by the world' s leading BPM thought leaders. This first volume focuses on arriving at a sound definition of BPM approaches and examines BPM methods and process-aware information systems. As such, it provides guidance for the integration of BPM into corporate methodologies and information systems. Each chapter has been contributed by leading international experts. Selected case studies complement their views and lead to a summary of BPM expertise that is unique in its coverage of the most critical success factors of BPM. The second edition of this handbook has been significantly revised and extended. Each chapter has been updated to reflect the most current developments. This includes in particular new technologies such as in-memory data and process management, social media and networks. A further focus of this revised and extended edition is on the actual deployment of the proposed theoretical concepts. This volume includes a number of entire new chapters from some of the world's leading experts in the domain of BPM. "The practice of Business Process Management has progressed significantly since Michael Hammer and I wrote the Reengineering book. This "handbook" presents the most complete description of the competencies required for BPM and exhaustively describes what we have learned about process management in the last 20 years."
This paper presents an approach of developing a special environment to help application developers to create programs compliant with some interface standard. The paper suggests a design of the informational system aimed to make it easier to develop and to maintain such an environment on the basis of the existing systems, with necessary modiﬁcations in the areas concerned by the standard. To store information about existing systems and to facilitate their modiﬁcation, it is suggested to use a database with a set of accompanying tools. Necessary aspects of the database schema design are described, as well as some aspects of the tool architecture.
A model for organizing cargo transportation between two node stations connected by a railway line which contains a certain number of intermediate stations is considered. The movement of cargo is in one direction. Such a situation may occur, for example, if one of the node stations is located in a region which produce raw material for manufacturing industry located in another region, and there is another node station. The organization of freight traﬃc is performed by means of a number of technologies. These technologies determine the rules for taking on cargo at the initial node station, the rules of interaction between neighboring stations, as well as the rule of distribution of cargo to the ﬁnal node stations. The process of cargo transportation is followed by the set rule of control. For such a model, one must determine possible modes of cargo transportation and describe their properties. This model is described by a ﬁnite-dimensional system of diﬀerential equations with nonlocal linear restrictions. The class of the solution satisfying nonlocal linear restrictions is extremely narrow. It results in the need for the “correct” extension of solutions of a system of diﬀerential equations to a class of quasi-solutions having the distinctive feature of gaps in a countable number of points. It was possible numerically using the Runge–Kutta method of the fourth order to build these quasi-solutions and determine their rate of growth. Let us note that in the technical plan the main complexity consisted in obtaining quasi-solutions satisfying the nonlocal linear restrictions. Furthermore, we investigated the dependence of quasi-solutions and, in particular, sizes of gaps (jumps) of solutions on a number of parameters of the model characterizing a rule of control, technologies for transportation of cargo and intensity of giving of cargo on a node station.
Event logs collected by modern information and technical systems usually contain enough data for automated process models discovery. A variety of algorithms was developed for process models discovery, conformance checking, log to model alignment, comparison of process models, etc., nevertheless a quick analysis of ad-hoc selected parts of a journal still have not get a full-fledged implementation. This paper describes an ROLAP-based method of multidimensional event logs storage for process mining. The result of the analysis of the journal is visualized as directed graph representing the union of all possible event sequences, ranked by their occurrence probability. Our implementation allows the analyst to discover process models for sublogs defined by ad-hoc selection of criteria and value of occurrence probability
The geographic information system (GIS) is based on the first and only Russian Imperial Census of 1897 and the First All-Union Census of the Soviet Union of 1926. The GIS features vector data (shapefiles) of allprovinces of the two states. For the 1897 census, there is information about linguistic, religious, and social estate groups. The part based on the 1926 census features nationality. Both shapefiles include information on gender, rural and urban population. The GIS allows for producing any necessary maps for individual studies of the period which require the administrative boundaries and demographic information.
Existing approaches suggest that IT strategy should be a reflection of business strategy. However, actually organisations do not often follow business strategy even if it is formally declared. In these conditions, IT strategy can be viewed not as a plan, but as an organisational shared view on the role of information systems. This approach generally reflects only a top-down perspective of IT strategy. So, it can be supplemented by a strategic behaviour pattern (i.e., more or less standard response to a changes that is formed as result of previous experience) to implement bottom-up approach. Two components that can help to establish effective reaction regarding new initiatives in IT are proposed here: model of IT-related decision making, and efficiency measurement metric to estimate maturity of business processes and appropriate IT. Usage of proposed tools is demonstrated in practical cases.