Enabling Real-Time Applications in Wi-Fi Networks
Being of high importance, real-time applications, such as online gaming, real-time video streaming, virtual reality, and remote-control drone and robots, introduce many challenges to the developers of wireless networks. Such applications pose strict requirements on the delay and packet loss ratio, and it is hardly possible to satisfy them in Wi-Fi networks that use random channel access. The article presents a novel approach to enable real-time communications by exploiting an additional radio. This approach was recently proposed by us in the IEEE 802.11 Working Group and attracted much attention. To evaluate its gain and to study how real-time traffic coexists with the usual one, a mathematical model is designed. The numerical results show that the proposed approach allows decreasing the losses and delays for the real-time traffic by orders of magnitude, while the throughput for the usual traffic is reduced insignificantly in comparison to existing networks.
To improve the reliability of data delivery, in Wi-Fi networks stations can reserve for their transmissions periodic time intervals of the same duration in which they are allowed to transmit, while adjacent stations do not have that right. Here there arises the problem of choosing the parameters of reserved intervals that would ensure quality of service requirements for transmitted data in the smallest possible amount of reserved channel time. We consider the data transmission process in periodic intervals with the block acknowledgement policy that lets us reduce the costs by acknowledgement the set of packets with a single service message. We propose a method for mathematical modeling of such a transmission.
Для передачи по mesh-сети потоковых данных, предъявляющих высокие требования к качеству обслуживания, удобно использовать описанный в стандарте IEEE 802.11s механизм MCCA детерминированного доступа к среде. При использовании этого механизма станции резервируют для своих передач определенные периодически повторяющиеся интервалы времени, тем самым получая бесконкурентный доступ к каналу связи. Однако, чтобы обеспечить успешную доставку данных в условиях помех, необходимо устанавливать дополнительные резервирования под повторные попытки передачи. В работе построена аналитическая модель процесса передачи неординарного потока по многошаговым беспроводным сетям с помощью механизма MCCA. Модель позволяет определить наибольший период резервирований, при котором выполнены требования на время доставки и долю потерянных пакетов.
Proceedings of 16th International Conference on Next Generation Wired/Wireless Advanced Networking
Proceedings of International Wireless Communications and Mobile Computing Conference (IWCMC) 2016
Proceedings of Wireless Communications and Networking Conference (WCNC) 2016
While celebrating the 21st year since the very first IEEE 802.11 “legacy” 2 Mbit/s wireless Local Area Network standard, the latest Wi-Fi newborn is today reaching the finish line, topping the remarkable speed of 10 Gbit/s. IEEE 802.11ax was launched in May 2014 with the goal of enhancing throughputper-area in high-density scenarios. The first 802.11ax draft versions, namely D1.0 and D2.0, were released at the end of 2016 and 2017. Focusing on a more mature version D3.0, in this tutorial paper, we help the reader to smoothly enter into the several major 802.11ax breakthroughs, including a brand new OFDMAbased random access approach as well as novel spatial frequency reuse techniques. In addition, this tutorial will highlight selected significant improvements (including PHY enhancements, MUMIMO extensions, power saving advances, and so on) which make this standard a very significant step forward with respect to its predecessor 802.11ac
In Wi-Fi networks, preliminary channel reservation protects transmissions in reserved time intervals from collisions with neighboring stations. However, making changes in established reservations takes long time spent on negotiating changes with neighboring stations and dissemination of information about these changes. This complicates serving of Variable Bit Rate (VBR) flows which intensity varies with time, what leaves no choice but to reserve some additional time for handling data bursts and packet retransmissions (caused by random noise and interference from remote stations). In the paper, we consider a more flexible approach when bursts and retransmissions are handled by some random access method while a constant part of an input flow is served in preliminarily reserved intervals. We build a mathematical model of a VBR flow transmission process with this heterogeneous access method and use the model to find transmission parameters which guarantee that Quality of Service requirements of the flow are satisfied at the minimal amount of used channel time.
A model for organizing cargo transportation between two node stations connected by a railway line which contains a certain number of intermediate stations is considered. The movement of cargo is in one direction. Such a situation may occur, for example, if one of the node stations is located in a region which produce raw material for manufacturing industry located in another region, and there is another node station. The organization of freight traﬃc is performed by means of a number of technologies. These technologies determine the rules for taking on cargo at the initial node station, the rules of interaction between neighboring stations, as well as the rule of distribution of cargo to the ﬁnal node stations. The process of cargo transportation is followed by the set rule of control. For such a model, one must determine possible modes of cargo transportation and describe their properties. This model is described by a ﬁnite-dimensional system of diﬀerential equations with nonlocal linear restrictions. The class of the solution satisfying nonlocal linear restrictions is extremely narrow. It results in the need for the “correct” extension of solutions of a system of diﬀerential equations to a class of quasi-solutions having the distinctive feature of gaps in a countable number of points. It was possible numerically using the Runge–Kutta method of the fourth order to build these quasi-solutions and determine their rate of growth. Let us note that in the technical plan the main complexity consisted in obtaining quasi-solutions satisfying the nonlocal linear restrictions. Furthermore, we investigated the dependence of quasi-solutions and, in particular, sizes of gaps (jumps) of solutions on a number of parameters of the model characterizing a rule of control, technologies for transportation of cargo and intensity of giving of cargo on a node station.
Generalized error-locating codes are discussed. An algorithm for calculation of the upper bound of the probability of erroneous decoding for known code parameters and the input error probability is given. Based on this algorithm, an algorithm for selection of the code parameters for a specified design and input and output error probabilities is constructed. The lower bound of the probability of erroneous decoding is given. Examples of the dependence of the probability of erroneous decoding on the input error probability are given and the behavior of the obtained curves is explained.
Event logs collected by modern information and technical systems usually contain enough data for automated process models discovery. A variety of algorithms was developed for process models discovery, conformance checking, log to model alignment, comparison of process models, etc., nevertheless a quick analysis of ad-hoc selected parts of a journal still have not get a full-fledged implementation. This paper describes an ROLAP-based method of multidimensional event logs storage for process mining. The result of the analysis of the journal is visualized as directed graph representing the union of all possible event sequences, ranked by their occurrence probability. Our implementation allows the analyst to discover process models for sublogs defined by ad-hoc selection of criteria and value of occurrence probability
The Handbook of CO₂ in Power Systems' objective is to include the state-of-the-art developments that occurred in power systems taking CO₂ emission into account. The book includes power systems operation modeling with CO₂ emissions considerations, CO₂ market mechanism modeling, CO₂ regulation policy modeling, carbon price forecasting, and carbon capture modeling. For each of the subjects, at least one article authored by a world specialist on the specific domain is included.