Трансформация балансовых бизнес-моделей банков как источник системных рисков
The article considers transformation of bank business model being results of macroeconomic and regulative system changes for identifying bank sector possible risks. Analysis was carried out on base of commercial banks official public reporting for 2014-2018 reporting period. The research found out availability of Russian bank business model transformation containing increasing of interbank lending operation and part of bonds operation in its balances. It is defined that increasing this assets part is accompanied by a risks rising scale as past due balances as for separate banks and the whole bank sector. Systematically important banks were defined as being a subject to risk of loosing financial soundness due to its business model transformation.
World financial crisis has vividly demonstrated systemically important financial institutions to be subject of great attention in both mature and emerging market economies. The paper aims at summarizing the approaches to systemically important financial institutions identification and regulation. Qualitative and quantitative methods are discussed, as well as the demand for systemically important financial institutions identification for the case of Russian banking sector.
Problems encountered by the global banking sector nowadays are not a mere consequence of the unfavorable macroeconomic trends. Those difficulties confirm that a heavy burden of the structural disbalances have been accumulated by the banking industry. In order to solve this puzzle a deep transformation of the sector is essential. Institutional differences of financial structures in the leading economies (anglosaxon, continental European, BRIC’s) have reflected themselves again during the global crisis. A variety of measures intended to support banks and to strengthen their supervision were undertaken both at national and supranational levels. However new norms of regulation are, in their turn, suppressing banking profitability and, to some extent, are hindering the way to sustainability. Banks have to adapt to new economic and legal environment, they need to find new spheres of business and rethink their corporate strategies in order to become profitable again.
The paper examines the structure, governance, and balance sheets of state-controlled banks in Russia, which accounted for over 55 percent of the total assets in the country's banking system in early 2012. The author offers a credible estimate of the size of the country's state banking sector by including banks that are indirectly owned by public organizations. Contrary to some predictions based on the theoretical literature on economic transition, he explains the relatively high profitability and efficiency of Russian state-controlled banks by pointing to their competitive position in such functions as acquisition and disposal of assets on behalf of the government. Also suggested in the paper is a different way of looking at market concentration in Russia (by consolidating the market shares of core state-controlled banks), which produces a picture of a more concentrated market than officially reported. Lastly, one of the author's interesting conclusions is that China provides a better benchmark than the formerly centrally planned economies of Central and Eastern Europe by which to assess the viability of state ownership of banks in Russia and to evaluate the country's banking sector.
The paper examines the principles for the supervision of financial conglomerates proposed by BCBS in the consultative document published in December 2011. Moreover, the article proposes a number of suggestions worked out by the authors within the HSE research team.