Perceptual Set Within the "Attentional Blink"
The experiment involved dual-target rapid serial visual presentation task in which 15 stimuli were displayed within each trial. The time of presentation for one stimulus was 90 milliseconds; interstimulus interval was 10 milliseconds. Shape and size of stimuli were varied. Targets could have two, one, or no shared features. There were three colors: green for distractors, yellow for first target stimulus, and blue for second target stimulus. The second target was presented on five different lags after first target. Participants task was to detect both targets on each trial. Repeated measures analysis of variance revealed the significant impact of the lag factor and the number of shared features factor. Attentional blink was observed only for no shared features condition. The perceptual set created by the first target reduces the interference in working memory and prevents the second target omission for the conditions with one and two shared features.
The distractive effects on attentional task performance in different paradigms are analyzed in this paper. I demonstrate how distractors may negatively affect (interference effect), positively (redundancy effect) or neutrally (null effect). Distractor effects described in literature are classified in accordance with their hypothetical source. The general rule of the theory is also introduced. It contains the formal prediction of the particular distractor effect, based on entropy and redundancy measures from the mathematical theory of communication (Shannon, 1948). Single- vs dual-process frameworks are considered for hypothetical mechanisms which underpin the distractor effects. Distractor profiles (DPs) are also introduced for the formalization and simple visualization of experimental data concerning the distractor effects. Typical shapes of DPs and their interpretations are discussed with examples from three frequently cited experiments. Finally, the paper introduces hierarchical hypothesis that states the level-fashion modulating interrelations between distractor effects of different classes.
This article describes the expierence of studying factors influencing the social well-being of educational migrants as mesured by means of a psychological well-being scale (A. Perrudet-Badoux, G.A. Mendelsohn, J.Chiche, 1988) previously adapted for Russian by M.V. Sokolova. A statistical analysis of the scale's reliability is performed. Trends in dynamics of subjective well-being are indentified on the basis the correlations analysis between the condbtbions of adaptation and its success rate, and potential mechanisms for developing subjective well-being among student migrants living in student hostels are described. Particular attention is paid to commuting as a factor of adaptation.