Обзор методов встраивания информации в цифровые объекты для обеспечения безопасности в «интернете вещей»
Transmission, processing and storage of information in the infrastructure of the Internet of Things are related to the necessity for solving a number of problems in information security. The main difficulty lies in the fact that the infrastructure of the Internet of Things is not homogeneous and contains many different devices, including those with limited computing resources. One of the approaches to solving these problems is to embed additional information into the transmitted and stored digital objects. In this paper we present a review of methods of embedding information in digital data to provide security in the Internet of Things, including methods of steganographic embedding of information and methods for embedding digital watermarks. We reviewed methods of embedding information into digital images, as well as wireless sensor network data, proposed for use in the Internet of Things. In this paper we defined the advantages and disadvantages of individual methods and groups of methods, also we analyzed their applicability for data protection in the Internet of Things. Relevant trends in this field of research have been identified.
The direction of cloud computing protection development is considered in the article. It is suggested to consider the structure of a queuing system based on processing data centers (PDC), as the combination of six components: the hardware PDC element; telecommunication PDC resources access element; users and the software associated to them; the «middle» PDC layer, providing calculating virtualization and including control system; application services, provided by PDC as the layer of application software for guest operating systems; data storage systems, especially databases. The ways of data protection in every subsystem, the directions of necessary development and the possibility of different security levels provision are discussed in the article. According to the author, the most complicated objective is to certify access control system in modern database systems like Oracle and DB-2.
IT Platform Choice Taking Into Account Economic Characteristics
In this paper the authors propose a new approach to teaching practical information security in higher school based on case studies. They justify its place in information security curriculum by providing an example from the experience of using the approach for BSc and MSc students of Higher School of Economics in the courses on «Technical and Organizational Aspects of Information Security and Information Security Technologies». This paper fills the gap in existing practices for teaching information security which currently lack in guidelines for designing case studies and integrating them into the curriculum.
In this paper are shown methods of information protection and also algorithms of embedding of additional information into digital graphics images.
A model for organizing cargo transportation between two node stations connected by a railway line which contains a certain number of intermediate stations is considered. The movement of cargo is in one direction. Such a situation may occur, for example, if one of the node stations is located in a region which produce raw material for manufacturing industry located in another region, and there is another node station. The organization of freight traﬃc is performed by means of a number of technologies. These technologies determine the rules for taking on cargo at the initial node station, the rules of interaction between neighboring stations, as well as the rule of distribution of cargo to the ﬁnal node stations. The process of cargo transportation is followed by the set rule of control. For such a model, one must determine possible modes of cargo transportation and describe their properties. This model is described by a ﬁnite-dimensional system of diﬀerential equations with nonlocal linear restrictions. The class of the solution satisfying nonlocal linear restrictions is extremely narrow. It results in the need for the “correct” extension of solutions of a system of diﬀerential equations to a class of quasi-solutions having the distinctive feature of gaps in a countable number of points. It was possible numerically using the Runge–Kutta method of the fourth order to build these quasi-solutions and determine their rate of growth. Let us note that in the technical plan the main complexity consisted in obtaining quasi-solutions satisfying the nonlocal linear restrictions. Furthermore, we investigated the dependence of quasi-solutions and, in particular, sizes of gaps (jumps) of solutions on a number of parameters of the model characterizing a rule of control, technologies for transportation of cargo and intensity of giving of cargo on a node station.
Event logs collected by modern information and technical systems usually contain enough data for automated process models discovery. A variety of algorithms was developed for process models discovery, conformance checking, log to model alignment, comparison of process models, etc., nevertheless a quick analysis of ad-hoc selected parts of a journal still have not get a full-fledged implementation. This paper describes an ROLAP-based method of multidimensional event logs storage for process mining. The result of the analysis of the journal is visualized as directed graph representing the union of all possible event sequences, ranked by their occurrence probability. Our implementation allows the analyst to discover process models for sublogs defined by ad-hoc selection of criteria and value of occurrence probability
The geographic information system (GIS) is based on the first and only Russian Imperial Census of 1897 and the First All-Union Census of the Soviet Union of 1926. The GIS features vector data (shapefiles) of allprovinces of the two states. For the 1897 census, there is information about linguistic, religious, and social estate groups. The part based on the 1926 census features nationality. Both shapefiles include information on gender, rural and urban population. The GIS allows for producing any necessary maps for individual studies of the period which require the administrative boundaries and demographic information.
Existing approaches suggest that IT strategy should be a reflection of business strategy. However, actually organisations do not often follow business strategy even if it is formally declared. In these conditions, IT strategy can be viewed not as a plan, but as an organisational shared view on the role of information systems. This approach generally reflects only a top-down perspective of IT strategy. So, it can be supplemented by a strategic behaviour pattern (i.e., more or less standard response to a changes that is formed as result of previous experience) to implement bottom-up approach. Two components that can help to establish effective reaction regarding new initiatives in IT are proposed here: model of IT-related decision making, and efficiency measurement metric to estimate maturity of business processes and appropriate IT. Usage of proposed tools is demonstrated in practical cases.