A Method for Measuring the Pitch Frequency of Speech Signals for the Systems of Acoustic Speech Analysis
We developed a new method for measuring the pitch frequency of speech signals with elevated noise immunity. The problem of protection against intense background noise is solved in this method by the frequency selection of vocalized segments of speech signals according to a scheme with comb filter of interperiodic accumulation. The efficiency of the method is analyzed both theoretically and experimentally with the help of a multichannel frequency meter intended for the acoustic speech analysis. It is shown that, for a signal-to-noise ratio of 10 dB and higher, the error of the method does not exceed 2%.
In this article analyzed some methods of speech quality estimation based on State Standard and Informational Theory of Speech Perception. Experimentally examine effectiveness and boundaries of free methods for speech parameterization and using it with deferent metrics.
The monograph presents results by professor Dr. A. Shalumov’s Research School of Modeling, Information Technology and Automated Systems (Russia). The program, ASONIKA, developed by the school is reviewed here regarding reliability and quality of devices for simulation of electronics and chips during harmonic and random vibration, single and multiple impacts, linear acceleration and acoustic noise, and steady-state and transient thermal effects. Calculations are done for thermal stress during changes in temperature and power in time. Calculations are done for number of cycles to fatigue failure under mechanical loads as well as under cyclic thermal effects. Simulation results for reliability analysis are taken into account. Models, software interface, and simulation examples are presented.
For engineers and scientists involved in design automation of electronics.
The effects of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) acoustic noise were investigated on the parameters of event-related responses (ERPs) elicited during auditory matching-to-sample location and pitch working memory tasks. Stimuli were tones with varying location (left or right) and frequency (high or low). Subjects were instructed to memorize and compare either the locations or frequencies of the stimuli with each other. Tape-recorded fMRI acoustic noise was presented in half of the experimental blocks. The fMRI noise considerably enhanced the P1 component, reduced the amplitude and increased the latency of the N1, shortened the latency of the N2, and enhanced the amplitude of the P3 in both tasks. The N1 amplitude was higher in the location than pitch task in both noise and no-noise blocks, whereas the task-related N1 latency difference was present in the no-noise blocks only. Although the task-related differences between spatial and nonspatial auditory responses were partially preserved in noise, the finding that the acoustic gradient noise accompanying functional MR imaging modulated the auditory ERPs implies that the noise may confound the results of auditory fMRI experiments especially when studying higher cognitive processing
The processing of sound changes and involuntary attention to them has been widely studied with event-related brain potentials (ERPs). Recently, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has been applied to determine the neural mechanisms of involuntary attention and the sources of the corresponding ERP components. The gradient-coil switching noise from the MRI scanner, however, is a challenge to any experimental design using auditory stimuli. In the present study, the effects of MRI noise on ERPs associated with preattentive processing of sound changes and involuntary switching of attention to them were investigated. Auditory stimuli consisted of frequently presented “standard” sounds, infrequent, slightly higher “deviant” sounds, and infrequent natural “novel” sounds. The standard and deviant sounds were either sinusoidal tones or musical chords, in separate stimulus sequences. The mismatch negativity (MMN) ERP associated with preattentive sound change detection was elicited by the deviant and novel sounds and was not affected by the prerecorded background MRI noise (in comparison with the condition with no background noise). The succeeding positive P3a ERP responses associated with involuntary attention switching elicited by novel sounds were also not affected by the MRI noise. However, in ERPs to standard tones and chords, the P1, N1, and P2 peak latencies were significantly prolonged by the MRI noise. Moreover, the amplitude of the subsequent “exogenous” N2 to the standard sounds was significantly attenuated by the presence of MRI noise. In conclusion, the present results suggest that in fMRI the background noise does not interfere with the imaging of auditory processing related to involuntary attention.
A model for organizing cargo transportation between two node stations connected by a railway line which contains a certain number of intermediate stations is considered. The movement of cargo is in one direction. Such a situation may occur, for example, if one of the node stations is located in a region which produce raw material for manufacturing industry located in another region, and there is another node station. The organization of freight traﬃc is performed by means of a number of technologies. These technologies determine the rules for taking on cargo at the initial node station, the rules of interaction between neighboring stations, as well as the rule of distribution of cargo to the ﬁnal node stations. The process of cargo transportation is followed by the set rule of control. For such a model, one must determine possible modes of cargo transportation and describe their properties. This model is described by a ﬁnite-dimensional system of diﬀerential equations with nonlocal linear restrictions. The class of the solution satisfying nonlocal linear restrictions is extremely narrow. It results in the need for the “correct” extension of solutions of a system of diﬀerential equations to a class of quasi-solutions having the distinctive feature of gaps in a countable number of points. It was possible numerically using the Runge–Kutta method of the fourth order to build these quasi-solutions and determine their rate of growth. Let us note that in the technical plan the main complexity consisted in obtaining quasi-solutions satisfying the nonlocal linear restrictions. Furthermore, we investigated the dependence of quasi-solutions and, in particular, sizes of gaps (jumps) of solutions on a number of parameters of the model characterizing a rule of control, technologies for transportation of cargo and intensity of giving of cargo on a node station.
Event logs collected by modern information and technical systems usually contain enough data for automated process models discovery. A variety of algorithms was developed for process models discovery, conformance checking, log to model alignment, comparison of process models, etc., nevertheless a quick analysis of ad-hoc selected parts of a journal still have not get a full-fledged implementation. This paper describes an ROLAP-based method of multidimensional event logs storage for process mining. The result of the analysis of the journal is visualized as directed graph representing the union of all possible event sequences, ranked by their occurrence probability. Our implementation allows the analyst to discover process models for sublogs defined by ad-hoc selection of criteria and value of occurrence probability
The geographic information system (GIS) is based on the first and only Russian Imperial Census of 1897 and the First All-Union Census of the Soviet Union of 1926. The GIS features vector data (shapefiles) of allprovinces of the two states. For the 1897 census, there is information about linguistic, religious, and social estate groups. The part based on the 1926 census features nationality. Both shapefiles include information on gender, rural and urban population. The GIS allows for producing any necessary maps for individual studies of the period which require the administrative boundaries and demographic information.
Existing approaches suggest that IT strategy should be a reflection of business strategy. However, actually organisations do not often follow business strategy even if it is formally declared. In these conditions, IT strategy can be viewed not as a plan, but as an organisational shared view on the role of information systems. This approach generally reflects only a top-down perspective of IT strategy. So, it can be supplemented by a strategic behaviour pattern (i.e., more or less standard response to a changes that is formed as result of previous experience) to implement bottom-up approach. Two components that can help to establish effective reaction regarding new initiatives in IT are proposed here: model of IT-related decision making, and efficiency measurement metric to estimate maturity of business processes and appropriate IT. Usage of proposed tools is demonstrated in practical cases.