A frame-based approach to the source-goal asymmetry: Synchronic and diachronic evidence from Ancient Greek
This paper investigates the asymmetrical behavior of Sources and Goals of motion in Homeric and Classical Greek within the frame semantics paradigm. In particular, based on a corpus of 26 works covering four text types, it is shown that (a) regardless of their semantic class, motion verbs display preference for Goal paths compared to Source ones; (b) the frame that a verb belongs to affects the type of path chosen only to a certain degree that does not change the Source-Goal imbalance; (c) semantically incongruent motion verb – path combinations are naturally less frequent than congruent combinations, but within the category of incongruent combinations the tokens are distributed in a way that reflects the prevalence of Goals; (d) the number of markers for the encoding of Goal is higher than that of Source; and (e) Source and Goal markers interact with Place ones in an asymmetrical way: Goal markers come to encode Place and, similarly, Place markers come to express Goal. Conversely, the interaction of markers exhibiting Source-Place polysemy is unidirectional, in the sense that none of these markers was originally used to encode Place alone. Theoretical implications of the study are discussed and directions for future research are suggested.
The paper presents clustering experiments on Russian verbs based on the statistical data drawn from the Russian FrameBank (framebank.ru). While lexicology has essentially abandoned the idea of syntactic transformations as the primary basis for grouping verbs into semantic classes (Apresjan 1967, Levin 1993), the hypothesis of the same lexical and syntactic distributional profiles underlying lexical clusters is still attractive. In computational linguistics, some attempts have been made to obtain verb classes for English, German and other languages using observable morpho-syntactic and lexical properties of context (Dorr and Jones 1996; Lapata 1999; Schulte im Walde 2006; Lenci 2014, among others). Our experiments on semantic classification of Russian verbs are based on two types of tags embedded in the annotation of argument constructions: a) semantic roles and b) morpho-syntactic patterns. The domain of speech verbs is classified automatically on vectors, and the resulting clusters are contrasted against Babenko (2007)’s semantic classes and three other manual classifications. The classes within the domain of possessive verbs are constructed using rule-based solutions and evaluated against Berkeley FrameNet verb clusters. We conclude that clustering on morpho-syntactic (pure formal) patterns loses the race to more intelligent approaches which take into account semantic roles.
Matthew Devaris, one of the prominent Hellenists in 16th-century Rome, is known, inter alia, as an author of Greek epigrams. Some of them were printed in the preface to his Liber de Graecae linguae particulis in 1588. As for the rest, several epigrams were published in 1962 by Faidon Bubulidis and a few other ones by Anna Meschini Pontani in 1978. Meschini Pontani supposed that the corpus of Devaris’ epigrams might turn out to be larger. Indeed, one of his unknown poems has recently come to light in an unexpected place. A paper leaf preserved in the Archives of the Saint Petersburg Institute for History (carton 671, No. 54) is a subscribed copy of his epigram dedicated to Guglielmo Sirleto, apparently an autograph. Its first publication is offered here, together with an introductory note and some remarks concerning Devaris’ possible sources.
The paper deals with the lexical typology of words which refer to closing (cf. English close, shut, lock, cover, bar, etc.) and opening (open, uncover, unlock, unwrap, etc.). The former domain includes situations of preventing access to a static object by creating a barrier, whereas the latter deals with creating access to a static object by removing a barrier. In particular, we have singled out the following situations involved in lexical oppositions:Barrier in a building (door, window), sometimes requiring Instrument Barrier for the motion Barrier for the visual perception of a functional part (book, newspaper) “Self-closing” body parts (eyes, mouth), Covering (in contact with a surface), with further distinctions between complete and partial coverage, flexible and inflexible Instrument Containers (pan, bag): sometimes the same verb as used for covering with sth. flexible (seal). Hole with a possible difference between filling in a 3-D space and just covering a split or fracture in a flat surface Barrier for the visual perception or for impact
Some situations of closing can be conceptualized by lexemes from other domains.
Verbs of opening are often asymmetrical to verbs of closing, which provides a cross-linguistic confirmation and some new perspectives to the idea of asymmetry between antonyms and which in our case concerns particular lexical collocations, the general structure of semantic oppositions, and constructional patterns.
The paper is focused on the study of reaction of italian literature critics on the publication of the Boris Pasternak's novel "Doctor Jivago". The analysys of the book ""Doctor Jivago", Pasternak, 1958, Italy" (published in Russian language in "Reka vremen", 2012, in Moscow) is given. The papers of italian writers, critics and historians of literature, who reacted immediately upon the publication of the novel (A. Moravia, I. Calvino, F.Fortini, C. Cassola, C. Salinari ecc.) are studied and analised.
In the article the patterns of the realization of emotional utterances in dialogic and monologic speech are described. The author pays special attention to the characteristic features of the speech of a speaker feeling psychic tension and to the compositional-pragmatic peculiarities of dialogic and monologic text.