Atom- and Step-Economical Ruthenium-Catalyzed Synthesis of Esters from Aldehydes or Ketones and Carboxylic Acids
We developed a ruthenium-catalyzed reductive ester synthesis from aldehydes or ketones and carboxylic acids using carbon monoxide as a deoxygenative agent. Multiple factors influencing the outcome of the reaction were investigated. Best results were obtained for commercially available and inexpensive benzene ruthenium chloride; as low as 0.5 mol % of the catalyst is sufficient for efficient reaction. Competitive studies demonstrated that the presence of even 1000 equiv of alcohol in the reaction mixture does not lead to the corresponding ester, which clearly indicates that the process is not a simple reductive esterification but a novel type of Ru-catalyzed redox process.
Carbon monoxide as an example of reducing agent, in contrast to classical reducing agents (hydrogen and metal hydrides), can provide very high atom precision for reductive addition of substrates with various functional groups. This enables synthesis of new compounds with unique structures and properties.
An efficient and scaled-up synthesis of the imidazol-2-ylidene-based unsymmetrical NHC precursors bearing the sterically demanding hexafluoroisopropylalkoxy group [(CF3)(2)(OR)C-] at the ortho position of the N-aryl substituent was developed. The key step of the method involved the transformation of a Mes-substituted oxazolinium tetrafluoroborate salt through the reaction with the corresponding binucleophilic fluoroalkyl-substituted aniline. The subsequent post-modification of the resulting hydroxyl-containing salt through a simple one-step O-alkylation protocol provided access to a new family of unsymmetrical fluorinated NHC precursors. These compounds were successfully utilized for the preparation of several novel metal complexes. The molecular structures of some NHC precursors and their metal complexes have been unambiguously characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. A preliminary evaluation of the catalytic activity of the palladium complexes was performed on a Buchwald-Hartwig amination reaction. As a result, two PEPPSI-type (PEPPSI=pyridine-enhanced pre-catalyst preparation stabilization and initiation) Pd complexes have demonstrated promising activity in alkane solvents.
Chiral copper(II) and cobalt(III) complexes (1–5 and 6, respectively) derived from Schiff bases of (S)-2-(aminomethyl)pyrrolidine and salicylaldehyde derivatives were employed in a mechanistic study of the Henry reaction-type condensation of nitromethane and o-nitrobenzaldehyde in CH2Cl2 (CD2Cl2), containing different amounts of water. The reaction kinetics was monitored by 1H and 13C NMR. The addition of water had a different influence on the activity of the two types of complexes, ranging from a crucial positive effect in the case of the copper(II) complex 2 to insignificant in the case of the stereochemically inert cobalt(III) complex 6. No experimental support was found by 1H NMR studies for the classical Lewis acid complexation of the carbonyl group of the aldehyde by the central copper(II) ion, and, moreover, density functional theory (DFT) calculations support the absence of such coordination. On the other hand, a very significant complexation was found for water, and it was supported by DFT calculations. In fact, we suggest that it is the Brønsted acidity of the water molecule coordinated to the metal ion that triggers the aldehyde activation. The rate-limiting step of the reaction was the removal of an α-proton from the nitromethane molecule, as supported by the observed kinetic isotope effect equaling 6.3 in the case of the copper complex 2. It was found by high-resolution mass spectrometry with electrospray ionization that the copper(II) complex 2 existed in CH2Cl2 in a dimeric form. The reaction had a second-order dependence on the catalyst concentration, which implicated two dimeric forms of the copper(II) complex 2 in the rate-limiting step. Furthermore, DFT calculations help to generate a plausible structure of the stereodetermining transition step of the condensation.
The application of mathematical modeling methods (with subsequent computer sales) to determine the parameters of accuracy geometry bands obtained with the new equipment and process the step deformation bands of hard alloys based on copper