Mechanisms generating asymmetric core-cohesive blockmodels
The paper addresses the relationship between different local network mechanisms and different global network structures, described by blockmodels. The research question is narrowed to the context of preschool children networks. Based on the studies regarding friendship, liking and interactional networks among preschool children, the popularity, transitivity, mutuality and assortativity mechanisms are assumed to be important for the evolution of such networks. It is assumed that the global network structure is defined by an asymmetric core-cohesive blockmodel consisting of one core group of units and two or more cohesive groups of units. Therefore, the main research question is whether the emergence of an asymmetric core-cohesive blockmodel can be a result of the influence of the listed mechanisms. Different initial global network structures are considered. Monte Carlo simulations were used. The relative fit measure is proposed and used to compare different blockmodel types on generated networks. The results show that the listed mechanisms indeed lead to the assumed global network structure.
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to develop and test models explaining the unsatisfactory innovation activity of Russian firms and the main obstacles to innovation cluster development. Design/methodology/approach: Based on statistical analysis and the results of a pilot survey of 192 local businessmen, followed by imitation modeling analysis, the study tests hypotheses regarding the impact of unsatisfactory institutional environments, including weak property rights protection, on innovation cluster development in Russia. Findings: The analysis shows that the impact of adverse factors on innovation activities of cluster members is crucial, and estimates to what extent the negative factors' influence should be reduced to prevent cluster degradation processes. Research limitations/implications: The models provide a number of sensitivity tests of the parameters; however, data from clusters with different levels of support and protection need to be obtained. Government experiments could be conducted to test the models and find ranges of optimal parameters for cluster development. Short of this, examination of actual data from different cluster in similar environments would allow estimated of optimal strategies for support. Longitudinal data can also help determine the actual cause and effect of successful innovation cluster development. Practical implications: The paper provides managerial implications for organizations involved in innovation clusters, which can be used to improve cluster members' performance and collaborative innovation activities by means of creating acceptable institutional environments. Originality/value: The paper provides evidence of the connection between collaborative activities of clustering organizations in Russia and their performance caused by expectations concerning institutional conditions on the macro level in Russia.
The paper investigates the process of evolutionary transformation of cooperation and integration modes of industrial and construction enterprises in St.-Petersburg. The study has been performed at the period since 1998 to nowadays. The network form of integration was chosen as the main objet of this research. The paper is aimed at identifying the path of knowledge management development in different types of networks.
One of the peculiarities of the network form of integration is the high level of independence of the network participants that interact with each other. Key issues in this cooperation would be the following:
How to organize an effective transfer of knowledge and technologies within a network?
How to find a balance between open systems of innovation and the protection of the intellectual property of network participants?
How to evaluate the intellectual capital of a network? Is it necessary to make an assessment for each participant separately? Should one take into account synergies that increase the value of the intellectual capital because of the network participants’ interaction and knowledge sharing?
How to increase competitiveness of each company and of the whole network by the effective use of the intellectual capital?
How to measure the impact of open innovations on the intellectual capital of the companies interacting within a network?
Thus, it is important to reveal how knowledge management system is developing within a network of inter-related enterprises.
On the base of interviews of top-managers of companies in industrial and construction companies there were identified five different types of networks and knowledge management systems within these types. It is demonstrated how the knowledge management model is growing and becoming mature from the amorphous type of network cooperation to the integrated type. Factors, influencing this evolutionary development, have been revealed. Also, the paper proposes an approach to the evaluation of knowledge management systems based upon the value-based management indicators.
The structure and features of functioning of buffer data center of Pushino Research Center RAS are discussed. Data center is used for the store and the transmission large amounts of scientific data over a long distance.
DepCoS – RELCOMEX is an annual series of conferences organized by Wrocław University of Technology to promote a comprehensive approach to evaluation of system performability which is now commonly called dependability. In contrast to classic analyses which were concentrated on reliability of technical resources and structures built from them, dependability is based on multi-disciplinary approach to theory, technology, and maintenance of a system considered to be a multifaceted amalgamation of technical, information, organization, software and human (users, administrators, supervisors, etc.) resources. Diversity of processes being realized (data processing, system management, system monitoring, etc.), their concurrency and their reliance on in-system intelligence often severely impedes construction of strict mathematical models and calls for application of intelligent and soft computing methods.
This book presents the proceedings of the Ninth International Conference on Dependability and Complex Systems DepCoS-RELCOMEX, which took place in Brunów Palace, Poland, from 30th June to 4th July, 2014. The articles selected for this volume illustrate the variety of topics that must be included in system dependability analysis: tools, methodologies and standards for modelling, design and simulation of the systems, security and confidentiality in information processing, specific issues of heterogeneous, today often wireless, computer networks, or management of transportation networks.
In this study we deliver an overview of clusters model development in leading world economies and their historical path. It was demonstrated that the existence of a strong agglomeration of firms is not the only component of the region: beyond the economic dimension, there are factors of social and cultural history which affect the community of people, values, the culture, the knowledge accumulated in the territory. The clusters’ enterprises would benefit from the other side, the elements of an economic nature such as industrial specialization, flexibility and the division of labor and the other, social and cultural integration that takes place within the community of businesses and individuals which constitute the cluster area.
DepCos-RELCOMEX is an annual series of conferences organized by the Institute of Computer Engineering, Control and Robotics (CECR), Wroclaw University of Technology, since 2006.
Contemporary technical systems are integrated unities of technical, information, organization, software and human resources. Diversity of the processes being realized in the system, their concurrency and their reliance on in-system intelligence significantly impedes construction of strict mathematical models and calls for application of intelligent and soft computing methods.
The submissions included in this volume illustrate variety of problems that need to be explored in the dependability analysis: methodologies and practical tools for modelling, design and simulation of the systems, security and confidentiality in information processing, specific issues of heterogeneous, today often wireless, computer networks, or management of transportation networks.
The purpose of the paper is to discuss problems and prospects of tourism clusters development in Russia. The Russian tourism market has huge potential, due to its history, culture, extremely diverse landscapes, rivers, lakes, mountains, flora and fauna, “hidden gems” of small towns with their ancient churches, original local museums and unique sights. In the last decade Russia has witnessed rapid quantitative growth as well as significant changes in strategic development of the tourism industry. Russian Government initiated a number of Federal target programs important for tourism and hotel industry development. In particular, tourism clusters are now in the focus of interest. In 2008, the Russian Government adopted the Concept of cluster policy in the Russian Federation, laying the cluster approach in the basis of the strategy of socio-economic development and considering it as a tool to raise competitiveness of industries and territories. However, the formation of clusters in Russia faces a number of problems due to the peculiarities of the Russian institutional environment. The main challenges facing tourism clusters development in Russia are described. The importance of development joint marketing strategy is underlined. The case of "Big Volga" tourism cluster in the Nizhny Novgorod region is presented.
The concepts of social networks, social capital and trust play an increasingly central role in the social sciences. They have become indispensable conceptual tools for the analysis of post-industrial/late-modern societies, which are characterized by such features as the relative decline of formal hierarchies, the development of flexible social arrangements in the sphere of production and the extreme mobility of capital. This is the first book to study the interrelationships between these important concepts both theoretically and empirically. Drawing on empirical investigations from a range of diverse European social contexts, the contributors develop an economic sociology that builds on and extends established theoretical perspectives. The book opens with an introduction to the theoretical ideas: relating social capital to reciprocity, trust and social networks in line with current debates. The authors go on to discuss the concept of social embededdness, addressing the economic effects of social capital by examining the network and trust foundations of labour markets and investigating the structural limits of trusting networks. They conclude with an exploration of the impact of networking and the functioning of trust and social capital on the economic arrangements and performance of nascent capitalist economies in post-Communist Europe. This thematically unified collection by a team of distinguished contributors from across Europe provides an innovative and distinctive contribution to an expanding area of research.