Compression of recurrent neural networks for efficient language modeling
Recurrent neural networks have proved to be an effective method for statistical language modeling. However, in practice their memory and run-time complexity are usually too large to be implemented in real-time offline mobile applications. In this paper we consider several compression techniques for recurrent neural networks including Long–Short Term Memory models. We make particular attention to the high-dimensional output problem caused by the very large vocabulary size. We focus on effective compression methods in the context of their exploitation on devices: pruning, quantization, and matrix decomposition approaches (low-rank factorization and tensor train decomposition, in particular). For each model we investigate the trade-off between its size, suitability for fast inference and perplexity. We propose a general pipeline for applying the most suitable methods to compress recurrent neural networks for language modeling. It has been shown in the experimental study with the Penn Treebank (PTB) dataset that the most efficient results in terms of speed and compression–perplexity balance are obtained by matrix decomposition techniques.
The book includes 61 reports of the International conference on computer and intellectual technology "Dialogue-2019", representing a wide range of theoretical and applied research in the field of natural language description, modeling of language processes, creating practically applicable computer linguistic technologies. For specialists in the field of theoretical and applied linguistics and intellectual technologies.
The system of object positioning inside the building using mobile devices and points of Wi-Fi access is considered, in particular, its architecture and subsystem of working out of the building plans.
The article examines the issue of developing models of the text input methods. The urgency of this matter is dictated by the reduction of financial costs of designing new input methods and upgrading existing ones. The article suggests a modeling method, which is verified by a series of experiments. Also the article gives recommendations on the use of the suggested modeling method.
In this paper, we consider several compression techniques for the language modeling problem based on recurrent neural networks (RNNs). It is known that conventional RNNs, e.g., LSTM-based networks in language modeling, are characterized with either high space complexity or substantial inference time. This problem is especially crucial for mobile applications, in which the constant interaction with the remote server is inappropriate. By using the Penn Treebank (PTB) dataset we compare pruning, quantization, low-rank factorization, tensor train decomposition for LSTM networks in terms of model size and suitability for fast inference.
Movement control of artificial limbs has made big advances in recent years. New sensor and control technology enhanced the functionality and usefulness of artificial limbs to the point that complex movements, such as grasping, can be performed to a limited extent. To date, the most successful results were achieved by applying recurrent neural networks (RNNs), However, in the domain of artificial hands, experiments so far were limited to non-mobile wrists, which significantly reduces the functionality of such prostheses. In this paper, for the first time, we present empirical results on gesture recognition with both mobile and non-mobile wrists. Furthermore, we demonstrate that recurrent neural networks with simple recurrent units (SRU) outperform regular RNNs in both cases in terms of gesture recognition accuracy, on data acquired by an arm band sensing electromagnetic signals from arm muscles (via surface electromyography or sEMG). Finally, we show that adding domain adaptation techniques to continuous gesture recognition with RNN improves the transfer ability between subjects, where a limb controller trained on data from one person is used for another person.
The article is devoted to questions of development of inertial navigation system for handheld devices and development of navigation algorithms on the basis of using accelerometers and gyroscopes in a mobile phone to track the movement of a walking person.
We explore recently introduced definition modeling technique that provided the tool for evaluation of different distributed vector representations of words through modeling dictionary definitions of words. In this work, we study the problem of word ambiguities in definition modeling and propose a possible solution by employing latent variable modeling and soft attention mechanisms. Our quantitative and qualitative evaluation and analysis of the model shows that taking into account words ambiguity and polysemy leads to performance improvement.
A model for organizing cargo transportation between two node stations connected by a railway line which contains a certain number of intermediate stations is considered. The movement of cargo is in one direction. Such a situation may occur, for example, if one of the node stations is located in a region which produce raw material for manufacturing industry located in another region, and there is another node station. The organization of freight traﬃc is performed by means of a number of technologies. These technologies determine the rules for taking on cargo at the initial node station, the rules of interaction between neighboring stations, as well as the rule of distribution of cargo to the ﬁnal node stations. The process of cargo transportation is followed by the set rule of control. For such a model, one must determine possible modes of cargo transportation and describe their properties. This model is described by a ﬁnite-dimensional system of diﬀerential equations with nonlocal linear restrictions. The class of the solution satisfying nonlocal linear restrictions is extremely narrow. It results in the need for the “correct” extension of solutions of a system of diﬀerential equations to a class of quasi-solutions having the distinctive feature of gaps in a countable number of points. It was possible numerically using the Runge–Kutta method of the fourth order to build these quasi-solutions and determine their rate of growth. Let us note that in the technical plan the main complexity consisted in obtaining quasi-solutions satisfying the nonlocal linear restrictions. Furthermore, we investigated the dependence of quasi-solutions and, in particular, sizes of gaps (jumps) of solutions on a number of parameters of the model characterizing a rule of control, technologies for transportation of cargo and intensity of giving of cargo on a node station.
Event logs collected by modern information and technical systems usually contain enough data for automated process models discovery. A variety of algorithms was developed for process models discovery, conformance checking, log to model alignment, comparison of process models, etc., nevertheless a quick analysis of ad-hoc selected parts of a journal still have not get a full-fledged implementation. This paper describes an ROLAP-based method of multidimensional event logs storage for process mining. The result of the analysis of the journal is visualized as directed graph representing the union of all possible event sequences, ranked by their occurrence probability. Our implementation allows the analyst to discover process models for sublogs defined by ad-hoc selection of criteria and value of occurrence probability
The geographic information system (GIS) is based on the first and only Russian Imperial Census of 1897 and the First All-Union Census of the Soviet Union of 1926. The GIS features vector data (shapefiles) of allprovinces of the two states. For the 1897 census, there is information about linguistic, religious, and social estate groups. The part based on the 1926 census features nationality. Both shapefiles include information on gender, rural and urban population. The GIS allows for producing any necessary maps for individual studies of the period which require the administrative boundaries and demographic information.
Existing approaches suggest that IT strategy should be a reflection of business strategy. However, actually organisations do not often follow business strategy even if it is formally declared. In these conditions, IT strategy can be viewed not as a plan, but as an organisational shared view on the role of information systems. This approach generally reflects only a top-down perspective of IT strategy. So, it can be supplemented by a strategic behaviour pattern (i.e., more or less standard response to a changes that is formed as result of previous experience) to implement bottom-up approach. Two components that can help to establish effective reaction regarding new initiatives in IT are proposed here: model of IT-related decision making, and efficiency measurement metric to estimate maturity of business processes and appropriate IT. Usage of proposed tools is demonstrated in practical cases.