Evaluation of La2CoTi0.7Mg0.3O6 as an electrode material for a symmetrical SOFC
La2CoTi0.7Mg0.3O6 (LCTM) material has been prepared at 1473K for 24 h in the air. X-ray powder diffraction study has revealed that it contains two orthorhombic perovskite phases (in a ratio 1:4) with close unit cell parameters. Annealing of LCTM in reducing (Ar/H2, 8%) atmosphere at 1173K for 12h has resulted in the preparation of a single-phase material containing the GdFeO3-type perovskite phase with the unit cell parameters of a=5.5631(3) Å, b=5.5462(3) Å, c=7.8522(5) Å. LCTM material exhibits a reversible transformation of a mixture of two perovskite phases with close cation content in the air and a single perovskite phase in a reducing atmosphere. Both as-prepared and reduced LCTM samples have been studied by thermogravimetric analysis and dilatometry in the air and Ar/H2 (8%). No chemical interaction between the as-prepared LCTM and standard electrolyte materials for SOFC like GDC and YSZ has been observed up to 1273K. High-temperature electrical conductivity of the as-prepared LCTM at variable oxygen partial pressure (10-4-0.21 atm) showed weak dependence over pO2 with Ea=0.48±0.01 eV. AC impedance study of the symmetrical cells LCTM/GDC/LCTM have revealed ASR value at 1173K of ~8.1±0.1 Ω∙cm2 in air and 0.24±0.05 Ω∙cm2 in a reducing atmosphere. These results allow to consider LCTM as a promising electrode material for a symmetrical SOFC
a1−yCayFe0.5+x(Mg,Mo)0.5−xO3-δ oxides with the orthorhombic GdFeO3-type perovskite structure have been synthesized at 1573 K. Transmission electron microscopy study for selected samples shows the coexistence of domains of perovskite phases with ordered and disordered B-cations. Mössbauer spectroscopystudies performed at 300 K and 573 K show that while compositions with low Ca-content (La0.55Ca0.45Fe0.5Mg0.2625Mo0.2375O3-δ and La0.5Ca0.5Fe0.6Mg0.175Mo0.225O3-δ) are nearly oxygen stoichiometric, La0.2Ca0.8Fe0.5Mg0.2625Mo0.2375O3-δ is oxygen deficient with δ ≈ 0.15. Oxides are stable in reducing atmosphere (Ar/H2, 8%) at 1173 K for 12 h. No additional phases have been observed at XRPD patterns of all studied perovskites and Ce1−xGdxO2−x/2 electrolyte mixtures treated at 1173–1373K, while Fe-rich compositions (x≥0.1) react with Zr1−xYxO2−x/2 electrolyte above 1273 K. Dilatometry studies reveal that all samples show rather low thermal expansion coefficients (TECs) in air of 11.4–12.7 ppm K−1. In reducing atmosphere their TECs were found to increase up to 12.1–15.4 ppm K−1 due to chemical expansion effect. High-temperature electrical conductivity measurements in air and Ar/H2atmosphere show that the highest conductivity is observed for Fe- and Ca-rich compositions. Moderate values of electrical conductivity and TEC together with stability towards chemical interaction with typical SOFC electrolytes make novel Fe-containing perovskites promising electrode materials for symmetrical solid oxide fuel cell.
The distribution of charge carriers in metal halide perovskites draws strong interest of the solar cell community, with experiments demonstrating that edges of various microstructures can improve material performance. This is rather surprising since edges and grain boundaries are often viewed as the main source of charge traps. We demonstrate by ab initio quantum dynamics simulations that edges of the CH3NH3PbBr3 perovskite create shallow trap states that mix well with the valence and conduction bands of the bulk, and therefore, support mobile charge carriers. Charges are steered to the edges energetically, facilitating dissociation of photo−generated excitons into free carriers. The edge−driven charge separation extends carrier lifetimes due to decreased overlap of the electron and hole wave functions, which leads to reduction of the nonadiabatic coupling responsible for nonradiative electron−hole recombination. Reduction of spatial symmetry near the edges activates additional vibrational modes that accelerate coherence loss within the electronic subsystem, further extending carrier lifetimes. Enhanced atomic motions at edges increase fluctuations of edge energy levels, enhancing mixing with band states and improving charge mobility. The simulations contribute to the atomistic understanding of the unusual properties of metal halide perovskites, generating the fundamental knowledge needed to design high−performance optoelectronic devices.
We have performed a comparative analysis of the bio-oil produced by thermal liquefaction of microalgae in different solvents using high-resolution Orbitrap mass spectrometry and GC-MS approach. Water, methanol, ethanol, butanol, isopropanol, acetonitrile, toluene, and hexane were used as solvents in which the liquefaction was performed. It was observed that all resulting oils demonstrate a considerable degree of similarity. For all samples, compounds containing 1 and 2 nitrogen atoms dominated in the positive ESI spectra, while a relative contribution of other compounds was small. In negative ESI mode, compounds having 2 to 7 oxygens were observed. Statistical analysis revealed that products can be combined in two groups depending on the solvent used for the liquefaction. To the first group, we can attribute the products obtained by using protic (alcohols) and to the second by using aprotic (acetonitrile, toluene) solvents. Nevertheless, based on our results, we concluded that solvent possesses a minor impact on molecular composition of bio-oil. We suggested that the driving force of the liquefaction reaction is the thermal dehydration of the carbohydrate in algae, resulting in water formation, which could be the trigger of the producing of bio-oil. To prove this hypothesis, we performed the reaction with the dry algae in the absence of the solvent and observed the formation of bio-oil.
This volume, being the 55th of this Series, contains a wealth of information on bioactive natural products. In Chapter 1, Watson and colleagues have discussed the synthesis of monoterpene indole alkaloids, an important class of structurally diverse natural products, with respect to conventional and biomimetic synthetic approaches.
Titanocene(III) has been widely used in the synthesis of complex organic molecules and natural products including polyketides, phenylpropanoids, antibiotics, and alkaloids. Oltra and coworkers have provided a review on the stereoselective synthesis of natural products facilitated by titanocene(III) in Chapter 2.
About 70 biologically active macrocyclic bisbibenzyls (MBBs) have been isolated and structurally elucidated during the last 30 years. Song and Zhao, in Chapter 3, have provided a review on the synthesis of MBBs with diverse pharmacological properties.
Diabetes mellitus is the most common endocrine/metabolic disorder that poses a global health concern. Reyes and colleagues have discussed the hypoglycemic activity of some terrestrial and marine bioactive compounds with potential for treating type 2 diabetes in Chapter 4. In Chapter 5, Pietruszka and coworkers have highlighted the importance of some marine oxylipins that exhibit different bioactive properties.
Depression has become a psychiatric disorder, which leads to various disabilities. Natural compounds like polyphenols and terpenoids have antioxidant and neuroprotective properties and can be used for the treatment of depression. In Chapter 6, Rodrigues et al. review the clinical studies and trials on polyphenols and terpenoids for the treatment of various psychiatric disorders. The lipid A phosphate and their phosphorylated analogues found in Gram-negative bacteria are of major importance because they provide the host with defense against infections from various microorganisms. Paradies and Zimmermann have discussed physical characteristics, isolation, and bioactivity of lipopolysaccharides (lipid A) for developing new vaccines and therapeutics in Chapter 7.
Hydroxycinnamic acids (HCAs) are a group of phytonutrients with numerous beneficial effects on human health that are largely derived from plants. HCAs play important roles like defense against UV rays or pathogenic attack during growth and development of plants. In Chapter 8, El-Seedi and colleagues present a review focusing on the therapeutic effects of HCAs for the treatment of cancer, diabetes, pulmonary, hepatic, neuro-, and cardiovascular diseases. In Chapter 9, Pomilio and Mercader have presented the study of natural anthocyanins and other related flavonoids for the readers, highlighting their possible and preferable uses as health-protecting food dyes over synthetic ones. They have also discussed the anthocyanins isolated from Ipomoea cairica along with their QSAR studies.
Cardiovascular diseases are considered to be a major threat to health. Polyphenols and carotenoids are structurally diverse groups of bioactive compounds isolated from fruits and vegetables, carrying protective effects against endothelial dysfunction. These therapeutic effects have been explored by Yamagata in Chapter 10.
The roots of licorice and ivy leaves have been used in folk medicine and drugs since long. The biological activity of these complexes has been discussed by Yakovishin and Grishkovets in Chapter 11. In Chapter 12, the chemical and biological characteristics of amicoumacins and xenocoumacins are reviewed by Korshun et al. with reference to the preparation of antibiotics.
I hope that this volume will be received with the same enthusiasm as the earlier volumes of this long-standing series the first volume of which was published under my Editorship in 1988. I would like to express my gratitude to Ms. Taqdees Malik and Mr. Mahmood Alam for their assistance in the preparation of this volume.
The New Russian Encyclopedia is a fundamental reference publication in 18 volumes that characterizes nature, population, economy, history, science, art, technology and other important aspects. Contains about 60,000 articles, about 30,000 biographies, about 15,000 color illustrations, maps, charts, diagrams, tables. Leaves since 2003.
The hydrogenation of diphenylacetylene (DPA) on palladium–silver catalysts with a single-atom structure was investigated. It has been shown experimentally that the reaction rate of alkene to alkane hydrogenation is substantially lower than the rate of DPA semi-hydrogenation. The kinetic barriers of all stages of hydrogenation were calculated by the DFT method.
The swelling of a poly (methyl methacrylate) in supercritical carbon dioxide was studied by means of full atomistic classical molecular dynamics simulation. In order to characterize the polymer swelling, we calculated various properties related to the density, structure, and dynamics of polymer chains as a function of the simulation time, temperature, and pressure. In addition, we compared the properties of the macromolecular chains in supercritical CO2 with the properties of the corresponding bulk system at the same temperature and atmospheric pressure. It was shown that diffusion of CO2 molecules into the polymer led to a significant increase in the chain mobility and distances between them. Analysis of diffusion coefficients of CO2 molecules inside and outside the poly(methyl methacrylate) sample has shown that carbon dioxide actively interacts with the functional groups of poly (methyl methacrylate). Joint analysis of the radial distribution functions obtained from classical molecular dynamics and of the averaging interatomic distances from Car-Parrinello molecular dynamics allows us to make a conclusion about the possibility of formation of weak hydrogen bonds between the carbon dioxide oxygen atom and the hydrogen atoms of the polymer methyl groups.
This volume presents new results in the study and optimization of information transmission models in telecommunication networks using different approaches, mainly based on theiries of queueing systems and queueing networks .
The paper provides a number of proposed draft operational guidelines for technology measurement and includes a number of tentative technology definitions to be used for statistical purposes, principles for identification and classification of potentially growing technology areas, suggestions on the survey strategies and indicators. These are the key components of an internationally harmonized framework for collecting and interpreting technology data that would need to be further developed through a broader consultation process. A summary of definitions of technology already available in OECD manuals and the stocktaking results are provided in the Annex section.