The experimental facility for the Search for Hidden Particles at the CERN SPS
The Search for Hidden Particles (SHiP) Collaboration has shown that the CERN SPS accelerator with its 400 GeV/c proton beam offers a unique opportunity to explore the Hidden Sector [1–3]. The proposed experiment is an intensity frontier experiment which is capable of searching for hidden particles through both visible decays and through scattering signatures from recoil of electrons or nuclei. The high-intensity experimental facility developed by the SHiP Collaboration is based on a number of key features and developments which provide the possibility of probing a large part of the parameter space for a wide range of models with light long-lived super-weakly interacting particles with masses up to (10) GeV/c2 in an environment of extremely clean background conditions. This paper describes the proposal for the experimental facility together with the most important feasibility studies. The paper focuses on the challenging new ideas behind the beam extraction and beam delivery, the proton beam dump, and the suppression of beam-induced background.
Results are presented from a search for new physics in final states containing a photon and missing transverse momentum. The data correspond to an integrated luminosity of 19.6 fb−1 collected in proton–proton collisions at s=8 TeV with the CMS experiment at the LHC. No deviation from the standard model predictions is observed for these final states. New, improved limits are set on dark matter production and on parameters of models with large extra dimensions. In particular, the first limits from the LHC on branon production are found and significantly extend previous limits from LEP and the Tevatron. An upper limit of 14.0 fb on the cross section is set at the 95% confidence level for events with a monophoton final state with photon transverse momentum greater than 145 GeV and missing transverse momentum greater than 140 GeV.
A search is performed for heavy Majorana neutrinos (N) decaying into a W boson and a lepton using the CMS detector at the Large Hadron Collider. A signature of two jets and either two same sign electrons or a same sign electron-muon pair is searched for using 19.7 fb−1 of data collected during 2012 in proton-proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 8 TeV. The data are found to be consistent with the expected standard model (SM) background and, in the context of a Type-1 seesaw mechanism, upper limits are set on the cross section times branching fraction for production of heavy Majorana neutrinos in the mass range between 40 and 500 GeV. The results are additionally interpreted as limits on the mixing between the heavy Majorana neutrinos and the SM neutrinos. In the mass range considered, the upper limits range between 0.00015–0.72 for |VeN|2 and 6.6 × 10−5−0.47 for |VeNVμN∗|2/(|VeN|2 + |VμN|2), where VℓN is the mixing element describing the mixing of the heavy neutrino with the SM neutrino of flavour ℓ. These limits are the most restrictive direct limits for heavy Majorana neutrino masses above 200 GeV.
Dijet events are studied in the proton-proton collision data set recorded at s=13 TeV with the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider in 2015 and 2016, corresponding to integrated luminosities of 3.5 fb−1 and 33.5 fb−1 respectively. Invariant mass and angular distributions are compared to background predictions and no significant deviation is observed. For resonance searches, a new method for fitting the background component of the invariant mass distribution is employed. The data set is then used to set upper limits at a 95% confidence level on a range of new physics scenarios. Excited quarks with masses below 6.0 TeV are excluded, and limits are set on quantum black holes, heavy W′ bosons, W* bosons, and a range of masses and couplings in a Z′ dark matter mediator model. Model-independent limits on signals with a Gaussian shape are also set, using a new approach allowing factorization of physics and detector effects. From the angular distributions, a scale of new physics in contact interaction models is excluded for scenarios with either constructive or destructive interference. These results represent a substantial improvement over those obtained previously with lower integrated luminosity.
A model for organizing cargo transportation between two node stations connected by a railway line which contains a certain number of intermediate stations is considered. The movement of cargo is in one direction. Such a situation may occur, for example, if one of the node stations is located in a region which produce raw material for manufacturing industry located in another region, and there is another node station. The organization of freight traﬃc is performed by means of a number of technologies. These technologies determine the rules for taking on cargo at the initial node station, the rules of interaction between neighboring stations, as well as the rule of distribution of cargo to the ﬁnal node stations. The process of cargo transportation is followed by the set rule of control. For such a model, one must determine possible modes of cargo transportation and describe their properties. This model is described by a ﬁnite-dimensional system of diﬀerential equations with nonlocal linear restrictions. The class of the solution satisfying nonlocal linear restrictions is extremely narrow. It results in the need for the “correct” extension of solutions of a system of diﬀerential equations to a class of quasi-solutions having the distinctive feature of gaps in a countable number of points. It was possible numerically using the Runge–Kutta method of the fourth order to build these quasi-solutions and determine their rate of growth. Let us note that in the technical plan the main complexity consisted in obtaining quasi-solutions satisfying the nonlocal linear restrictions. Furthermore, we investigated the dependence of quasi-solutions and, in particular, sizes of gaps (jumps) of solutions on a number of parameters of the model characterizing a rule of control, technologies for transportation of cargo and intensity of giving of cargo on a node station.
Event logs collected by modern information and technical systems usually contain enough data for automated process models discovery. A variety of algorithms was developed for process models discovery, conformance checking, log to model alignment, comparison of process models, etc., nevertheless a quick analysis of ad-hoc selected parts of a journal still have not get a full-fledged implementation. This paper describes an ROLAP-based method of multidimensional event logs storage for process mining. The result of the analysis of the journal is visualized as directed graph representing the union of all possible event sequences, ranked by their occurrence probability. Our implementation allows the analyst to discover process models for sublogs defined by ad-hoc selection of criteria and value of occurrence probability
The Handbook of CO₂ in Power Systems' objective is to include the state-of-the-art developments that occurred in power systems taking CO₂ emission into account. The book includes power systems operation modeling with CO₂ emissions considerations, CO₂ market mechanism modeling, CO₂ regulation policy modeling, carbon price forecasting, and carbon capture modeling. For each of the subjects, at least one article authored by a world specialist on the specific domain is included.
By using superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetometry, we investigated anisotropic high-field (H less than or similar to 7T) low-temperature (10 K) magnetization response of inhomogeneous nanoisland FeNi films grown by rf sputtering deposition on Sitall (TiO2) glass substrates. In the grown FeNi films, the FeNi layer nominal thickness varied from 0.6 to 2.5 nm, across the percolation transition at the d(c) similar or equal to 1.8 nm. We discovered that, beyond conventional spin-magnetism of Fe21Ni79 permalloy, the extracted out-of-plane magnetization response of the nanoisland FeNi films is not saturated in the range of investigated magnetic fields and exhibits paramagnetic-like behavior. We found that the anomalous out-of-plane magnetization response exhibits an escalating slope with increase in the nominal film thickness from 0.6 to 1.1 nm, however, it decreases with further increase in the film thickness, and then practically vanishes on approaching the FeNi film percolation threshold. At the same time, the in-plane response demonstrates saturation behavior above 1.5-2T, competing with anomalously large diamagnetic-like response, which becomes pronounced at high magnetic fields. It is possible that the supported-metal interaction leads to the creation of a thin charge-transfer (CT) layer and a Schottky barrier at the FeNi film/Sitall (TiO2) interface. Then, in the system with nanoscale circular domains, the observed anomalous paramagnetic-like magnetization response can be associated with a large orbital moment of the localized electrons. In addition, the inhomogeneous nanoisland FeNi films can possess spontaneous ordering of toroidal moments, which can be either of orbital or spin origin. The system with toroidal inhomogeneity can lead to anomalously strong diamagnetic-like response. The observed magnetization response is determined by the interplay between the paramagnetic-and diamagnetic-like contributions.