Амнистии в механизме переходного правосудия
The paper includes analysis of implementation of Transitional Justice models in other countries; the main emphasis was made on a simple inability to borrow any model of Transitional Justice due to different social and cultural characteristics of each country, where these models are used. The given paper intends to raise the subject-matter understanding by deputies, public servants working in the field of criminal justice, law enforcement, culture and social welfare; representatives of international and non-governmental organizations.
The book includes analysis of implementation of Transitional Justice models in other countries; the main emphasis was made on a simple inability to borrow any model of Transitional Justice due to different social and cultural characteristics of each country, where these models are used. The given book intends to raise the subject-matter understanding by deputies, public servants working in the field of criminal justice, law enforcement, culture and social welfare; representatives of international and non-governmental organizations.
The author describes the history of the development of the president power institution. Characterizes a current condition and the features of the president power institution. The author analyzes the basic functions of the president. Special attention is paid to the powers of the President of the Russian Federation in the sphere of the individual status of the individual. The author discusses the right to political asylum and the right to pardon. The main results of the president power institution formation are described in this article.
Do radical anticorruption measures such as lustration reduce corruption by systematically limiting the political participation of former authoritarian actors? While research has largely overlooked the role of transitional justice in addressing corruption, some scholars claim that lustration may increase corruption by reducing bureaucratic expertise. Analyzing original panel data from 30 post-communist states from 1996 to 2011, we find that lustration is effective in lowering corruption. Lustration disrupts the political, economic, and administrative malpractice of the preceding regimes by limiting opportunities for corruption of former communist elites. To illuminate the causal mechanism, we examine the cases of Estonia, which has adopted lustration and lowered corruption; Georgia, which has reduced corruption since first considering lustration; and Russia, which has not adopted lustration and maintains high levels of corruption. This study breaks new ground with a novel system-level explanation and an integrative approach to causation for the entire post-communist world.
У колективній монографії, підготовленій науковцями, юристами-практиками й експертами неурядових організацій, вперше докладно розкрито зміст, основні елементи та механізми реалізації правосуддя перехідного періоду, яке розглянуто в контексті одночасної трансформації українського суспільства від авторитарного минулого до демократичної сучасності та від умов військового конфлікту до постконфліктного стану. Проаналізовано досвід запровадження моделей правосуддя перехідного періоду в інших країнах. Зроблено акцент на неможливості простого запозичення будь-якої моделі перехідного правосуддя через відмін- ність соціально-культурних особливостей кожної з країн, де ці моделі застосовувалися. Розраховано на депутатський корпус, працівників державного сектора, які працюють у сферах кримінальної юстиції, правоохоронної діяльності, культури та соціального забезпечення; представників міжнародних і неурядових організацій.
The best known main International Nuremberg Trial to bring major Nazi war criminals to justice was held 70 years ago from 20.11.1945 to 1.10 1946. It was and still remains the only precedent of such kind in the history of legal proceedings. The defendants – Nazi party leaders, high ranking military officers, industrialists, , lawyers – were indicted on charges of waging aggressive war, military crimes, crimes against peace and humanity. To perform this task the victorious Allied Powers (USSR,USA, UK and France) set up the International Military Tribunal (IMT) which sentenced 12 Nazi war criminals to death (one in absentio), 8 received from ten years to life imprisonment, and 3 were found not guilty. After the main Nuremberg Trial 12 subsequent trials followed (1946-1949) conducted by the US Military Tribunals. The most prominent were Nazi doctors and judges (and lawyers) trials. Of 185 defendants indicted in subsequent trials only 12 were sentenced to death. The Nuremberg International Military Trial and the subsequent Tribunals were political and legal experiments, not without mistakes and controversies . But Allies successfully cooperated with each other and carried out this difficult task although the cold war was knocking at the door. The significance of Nuremberg Trials for the postwar world order and the progressive development of international law ( especially in the field of human rights and international criminal law) cannot be overestimated . The novelties and findings of “ Nuremberg Principles” (for instance, individual criminal responsibility of state leaders) have now the status of customary international law. They led directly to the UN Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide (1948), Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1948), European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms (1950) . And the IMT contributed to the establishing the Tribunals for war crimes in the former Yugoslavia and in Rwanda, as well as the International Criminal Court. But the author finishes up his work on an uneasy note : the international relations are now more and more influenced by a new global factor – the conflict of civilizations, characterized by triumph of power over justice. And this is a serious challenge to the Nuremberg Principles.
The article is devoted to a particular form of freedom of assembly — the right to counter-demonstrate. The author underlines the value of this right as an element of democratic society, but also acknowledges the risk of violent actions among participants of opposing demonstrations. Due to this risk, the government may adopt adequate measures restricting the right to counter-demonstrate, certain types of which are analyzed in this paper.
Development of standards of international controllability is reviewed in the article. Institutional approach is applied to development of international legal regime of Energy Charter. Definition of controllability is connected to development of international standards of dispute settlement, which are described in the article in detail. In connection with controllability, Russian interest, defense of investment in European Union and ecological investment encouragement, is reviewed in the article.
мировое управление и управляемость, Мировая экономика, международное экономическое право, энергетическая хартия, International control and controllability, International economics, international economic law, Energy Charter
международное частное право; недвижимость; ; школа бартолистов; бартолисты; теория статутов; статуарная теория/