Новгородские татары в Смуту и после Смуты: реконсолидация социальной группы
Regional diversity of Muscovite Czardom established in the middle – the second half of 16th c. and attempts to describe it achieved in nascent language of Muscovite bureaucracy was the way of Muscovite ranks construction. These ranks lately became a special characteristic trait of Muscovite society. Novgorod Land was the first ground where this language had been created. Actually, during 16th century the structure of ranks in Novgorod Land became more complicated. The article studies the directions following which, after the Time of Troubles and the Treaty of 1617, the restoration of one special rank had been provided. That were Novgorod Tartars (Muslims and Newly converted to Orthodoxy). The great decrease in numbers of this (and others) ranks of servicemen led to rank structure simplification. The extremely insignificant number of these Tartars preserved their land estates. In the same time in the record documents, special rank of Novgorod “Tartars and Newly Baptized” was noted. However, this rank was included in general overviews among other servicemen ranks. The most of descendants of Novgorod Tartars became to receive food salary from the State: that led them closer to the mobilized servicemen groups – musketeers, artillerists, etc, (who had no right for landownership). The case of former Novgorod Tartars who became subjects of Swedish crown after the Stolbovo Treaty 1617 is a good comparative material. Firstly (even before 1630s) the Swedish administration preserved the notes like “Tartars” in the document. But just in the second generation all the descendants of former Muscovite servicemen made a single rank of bayors; almost all of them were converted to Lutheranism. In Muscovy the notifications on Tartar origin of this or that landowners disappear from the state records up to mid-17th century. The article plots the issue of correlation between bureaucratic ranks of Muscovite act practice and real social groups of 17th century. Studying the case of Novgorod Tartars – a special group with not only language but also religious specifics seems to be good to decide the issue.