Российская империя и Центральная Азия: правоотношения в контексте фронтирной модернизации
The paper is the first attempt to obtain insights into the legal relations of the Russian Empire with the countries of Central Asia based on the concept of frontier modernization. The author identifies the main stages of legal cooperation between Russia and Central Asian states in the 18th — early 20th centuries, reveals the main means and methods, by which the Russian government tried to influence the legal development of the countries and peoples of the region in each of the investigated stages. Here, he compares them with similar processes implemented by the Russian Empire in its other eastern border regions. According to the author, the incomplete frontier modernization process in the Central Asian khanates (unlike in Transcaucasia, Kazakhstan, etc.) was associated both with their formal legal status (the actual protectorate of the Russian Empire with formal independence) and with the political situation (the revolutionary events of 1917, which toppled the empire).
Article devoted to analysis the role and significance of Tatar-born Russian officials in gathering information about state and law of the Central Asian khanates – Bukhara, Khiva, Khoqand in the 18th-19th cc. on the examples of M.Bekchurin, M.Aitov and I.Batyrshin. All of them served as officials of the Orenburg Frontier Commission, two of them were diplomats in Bukhara and Khiva, last one contacted with informers from abovementioned khanates. The common feature for them was that they were Turks and Moslems. Firstly that fact provided Central Asian population’s sympathies to them (including favor of representatives of the ruling elites of the khanates) and gave an opportunity to gather more useful information. Secondly, as representatives of the Turkic-Islamic culture they could better understand and estimate the level of political and legal development of the Central Asian khanates and prepare impartial reports for their chiefs. Also it’s necessary to notice that their affiliation with Turkic-Islamic world didn’t influence on quality of fulfillment of missions by such officials: they tried all ways to contribute to realization of the Russian policy in the Central Asia and advance of the Russian Empire in this region.
“Empire Speaks Out” is a result of the collaborative international research project whose participants aim to reconstruct the origin, development, and changing modes of self-description and representation of the heterogeneous political, social, and cultural space of the Russian Empire. The collection offers an alternative to the study of empire as an essentialized historical phenomenon, i.e. to those studies that construe empire retrospectively by projecting the categories of modern nation-centered social sciences onto the imperial past. It stresses dynamic transformations, adaptation, and reproduction of imperial patterns of sociability and governance. Chapters of the collection show how languages of rationalization derived from modern public politics, scientific discourses of applied knowledge (law, sociology, political economy, geography, ethnography, physical anthropology) and social self-organization influenced processes of transformation of the imperial space.
Present research is the first conducted in Kazakhstan to address the issue of volunteer management directly. At a time when the nonprofit sector has become a reality in Kazakhstan, improving its performance, scope, and reach depends on sound volunteer management practices. The purpose of this research is to learn about existing practices of volunteer administration in Kazakhstan and their implementation. To carry out the research, we implemented a survey of nonprofit organizations in Almaty, the largest city in Kazakhstan.
The article is based on the results of the survey of migrant workers from Central Asia in Moscow and Moscow region. One of the key issues of the study was the degree of adaptation of migrants to life in the capital. The article discusses the issue both from the point of view of experts on labor migration and of the migrants themselves.