Primary photophysical and photochemical processes for hexachloroosmate(IV) in aqueous solution
The photoaquation of the (OsCl62-)-Cl-IV complex was studied by means of stationary photolysis, nanosecond laser flash photolysis and ultrafast kinetic spectroscopy. The (OsCl5)-Cl-IV(OH)(2-) complex was found to be the only reaction product. The quantum yield of photoaquation is rather low and wavelength-dependent. No impact of redox processes on photoaquation was revealed. The total characteristic lifetime of the process is about 80 ps. Three intermediates were recorded in the femto- and picosecond time domains and assigned to different Os(IV) species. The nature of intermediates and possible mechanisms of photoaquation are discussed.
It is known that both cis,fac-[RuCl2(DMSO)(3)(H2O)] (1a) and trans,cis,cis-[RuCl2(DMSO)(2)(H2O)(2)] (2a) complexes, which are formed on the dissolution of trans and cis-isomers of [RuCl2(DMSO)(4)] in water, demonstrate light-induced anticancer activity. The first stage of 1a photochemistry is its transformation to 2a occurring with a rather high quantum yield, 0.64 +/- 0.17. The mechanism of the 1a 2a phototransformation was studied by means of nanosecond laser flash photolysis and ultrafast pump-probe spectroscopy. The reaction occurs in the picosecond time range via the formation and decay of two successive intermediates interpreted as Ru(ii) complexes with different sets of ligands. A tentative mechanism of phototransformation is proposed.
The anomalous magnetic moment (AMM) for excited states of an electron in a constant magnetic field has been calculated within the framework of two-dimensional electrodynamics. The analytical results for the interaction energy of the anomalous magnetic moment with the external magnetic field are obtained in two limiting cases of nonrelativistic and relativistic energy values in a comparatively weak magnetic field. It is shown that the interaction energy of the spin with the external field does not contain infrared divergence and tends to zero as magnetic field decreases, while the electron’s AMM increases logarithmically.
Warm dense matter is a peculiar state with solid densities and temperatures 1 − 100 eV. Its ab initio description waits united efforts of quantum chemistry, condensed matter and plasma physics. We use the finite temperature Kohn–Sham density functional theory (a ‘workhorse’ in this field) to study the pressure build-up with increase of electronic temperature in crystal and amorphous warm dense matter (WDM) gold. We compare the ab initio results with the effective ion–ion interaction model and reveal the possibility to separate the free electron contribution to the total pressure in WDM and to determine the corresponding degree of ionisation. For the sake of clarity, we try to describe our findings using the proper framework of statistical physics and briefly review the free energy models for WDM.
The results of measurements of an electron density in a microwave plasma filament in dense gas (argon) are reported. The electron density has been determined on the basis of Stark broadening of lines detected in the absorption spectrum. A high-resolution spectrometer incorporating GaAlAs diode laser operating at 870 nm has been used to measure Stark broadening and shifts of the argon line. The electron density in the filament was found to increase from the initial level of 10 exp 12/cu cm to value n sub e greater than 10 exp 16/cu cm. The dependencies of the electron density on gas pressure and microwave power density are presented.
The dynamics of a two-component Davydov-Scott (DS) soliton with a small mismatch of the initial location or velocity of the high-frequency (HF) component was investigated within the framework of the Zakharov-type system of two coupled equations for the HF and low-frequency (LF) fields. In this system, the HF field is described by the linear Schrödinger equation with the potential generated by the LF component varying in time and space. The LF component in this system is described by the Korteweg-de Vries equation with a term of quadratic influence of the HF field on the LF field. The frequency of the DS soliton`s component oscillation was found analytically using the balance equation. The perturbed DS soliton was shown to be stable. The analytical results were confirmed by numerical simulations.
By using superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetometry, we investigated anisotropic high-field (H less than or similar to 7T) low-temperature (10 K) magnetization response of inhomogeneous nanoisland FeNi films grown by rf sputtering deposition on Sitall (TiO2) glass substrates. In the grown FeNi films, the FeNi layer nominal thickness varied from 0.6 to 2.5 nm, across the percolation transition at the d(c) similar or equal to 1.8 nm. We discovered that, beyond conventional spin-magnetism of Fe21Ni79 permalloy, the extracted out-of-plane magnetization response of the nanoisland FeNi films is not saturated in the range of investigated magnetic fields and exhibits paramagnetic-like behavior. We found that the anomalous out-of-plane magnetization response exhibits an escalating slope with increase in the nominal film thickness from 0.6 to 1.1 nm, however, it decreases with further increase in the film thickness, and then practically vanishes on approaching the FeNi film percolation threshold. At the same time, the in-plane response demonstrates saturation behavior above 1.5-2T, competing with anomalously large diamagnetic-like response, which becomes pronounced at high magnetic fields. It is possible that the supported-metal interaction leads to the creation of a thin charge-transfer (CT) layer and a Schottky barrier at the FeNi film/Sitall (TiO2) interface. Then, in the system with nanoscale circular domains, the observed anomalous paramagnetic-like magnetization response can be associated with a large orbital moment of the localized electrons. In addition, the inhomogeneous nanoisland FeNi films can possess spontaneous ordering of toroidal moments, which can be either of orbital or spin origin. The system with toroidal inhomogeneity can lead to anomalously strong diamagnetic-like response. The observed magnetization response is determined by the interplay between the paramagnetic-and diamagnetic-like contributions.
Radiation conditions are described for various space regions, radiation-induced effects in spacecraft materials and equipment components are considered and information on theoretical, computational, and experimental methods for studying radiation effects are presented. The peculiarities of radiation effects on nanostructures and some problems related to modeling and radiation testing of such structures are considered.