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## Deep learning for inferring cause of data anomalies

Daily operation of a large-scale experiment is a resource consuming task, particularly from perspectives of routine data quality monitoring. Typically, data comes from different sub-detectors and the global quality of data depends on the combinatorial performance of each of them. In this paper, the problem of identifying channels in which anomalies occurred is considered. We introduce a generic deep learning model and prove that, under reasonable assumptions, the model learns to identify ’channels’ which are affected by an anomaly. Such model could be used for data quality manager cross-check and assistance and identifying good channels in anomalous data samples. The main novelty of the method is that the model does not require ground truth labels for each channel, only global flag is used. This effectively distinguishes the model from classical classification methods. Being applied to CMS data collected in the year 2010, this approach proves its ability to decompose anomaly by separate channels.

The performance of machine learning methods is heavily dependent on the choice of data representation (or features) on which they are applied. The rapidly developing field of deep learning is concerned with questions surrounding how we can best learn meaningful and useful representations of data. We take a broad view of the field and include topics such as feature learning, metric learning, compositional modeling, structured prediction, reinforcement learning, and issues regarding large-scale learning and non-convex optimization. The range of domains to which these techniques apply is also very broad, from vision to speech recognition, text understanding, gaming, music, etc.

Autonomous taxies are in high demand for smart city scenario. Such taxies have a well specified path to travel. Therefore, these vehicles only required two important parameters. One is detection parameter and other is control parameter. Further, detection parameters require turn detection and obstacle detection. The control parameters contain steering control and speed control. In this paper a novel autonomous taxi model has been proposed for smart city scenario. Deep learning has been used to model the human driver capabilities for the autonomous taxi. A hierarchical Deep Neural Network (DNN) architecture has been utilized to train various driving aspects. In first level, the proposed DNN architecture classifies the straight and turning of road. A parallel DNN is used to detect obstacle at level one. In second level, the DNN discriminates the turning i.e. left or right for steering and speed controls. Two multi layered DNNs have been used on Nvidia Tesla K 40 GPU based system with Core i-7 processor. The mean squared error (MSE) for the detection parameters viz. speed and steering angle were 0.018 and 0.0248 percent, respectively, with 15 milli seconds of realtime response delay.

It has been shown that the activations invoked by an image within the top layers of a large convolutional neural network provide a high-level descriptor of the visual content of the image. In this paper, we investigate the use of such descriptors (neural codes) within the image retrieval application. In the experiments with several standard retrieval benchmarks, we establish that neural codes perform competitively even when the convolutional neural network has been trained for an unrelated classification task (e.g. Image-Net). We also evaluate the improvement in the retrieval performance of neural codes, when the network is retrained on a dataset of images that are similar to images encountered at test time. We further evaluate the performance of the compressed neural codes and show that a simple PCA compression provides very good short codes that give state-of-the-art accuracy on a number of datasets. In general, neural codes turn out to be much more resilient to such compression in comparison other state-of-the-art descriptors. Finally, we show that discriminative dimensionality reduction trained on a dataset of pairs of matched photographs improves the performance of PCA-compressed neural codes even further. Overall, our quantitative experiments demonstrate the promise of neural codes as visual descriptors for image retrieval.

The performance of machine learning methods is heavily dependent on the choice of data representation (or features) on which they are applied. The rapidly developing field of representation learning is concerned with questions surrounding how we can best learn meaningful and useful representations of data. We take a broad view of the field and include topics such as deep learning and feature learning, metric learning, compositional modeling, structured prediction, reinforcement learning, and issues regarding large-scale learning and non-convex optimization. The range of domains to which these techniques apply is also very broad, from vision to speech recognition, text understanding, gaming, music, etc.

Brain-computer interfaces find application in a number of different areas and have the potential to be used for research as well as for practical purposes. The clinical use of BCI includes current studies on neurorehabilitation ([Frolov et al., 2013; Ang et al., 2010]), and there is the prospect of using BCI to restore movement and communication capabilities, providing alternative effective pathways to those that may be lost due to injury or illness. The processing of electrophysiological data requires analysis of high-dimensional, nonstationary, noisy signals reflecting complex underlying processes and structures. We have shown that for non-invasive neuroimaging methods such as EEG the potential improvement lies in the field of machine learning and involves designing data analysis algorithms that can model physiological and psychoemotional variability of the user. The development of such algorithms can be conducted in different ways, including the classical Bayesian paradigm as well as modern deep learning architectures. The interpretation of nonlinear decision rules implemented by multilayer structures would enable automatic and objective knowledge extraction from the neurocognitive experiments data. Despite the advantages of non-invasive neuroimaging methods, a radical increase in the bandwidth of the BCI communication channel and the use of this technology for the prosthesis control is possible only through invasive technologies. Electrocorticogram (ECoG) is the least invasive of such technologies, and in the final part of this work we demonstrate the possibility of using ECoG to decode the kinematic characteristics of the finger movement.

Daily operation of a large-scale experiment is a challenging task, particularly from perspectives of routine monitoring of quality for data being taken. We describe an approach that uses Machine Learning for the automated system to monitor data quality, which is based on partial use of data qualified manually by detector experts. The system automatically classifies marginal cases: both of good an bad data, and use human expert decision to classify remaining "grey area" cases. This study uses collision data collected by the CMS experiment at LHC in 2010. We demonstrate that proposed workflow is able to automatically process at least 20% of samples without noticeable degradation of the result.

We analyzed the way to increase computational efficiency of video-based image recognition methods with matching of high dimensional feature vectors extracted by deep convolutional neural networks. We proposed an algorithm for approximate nearest neighbor search. At the first step, for a given video frame the algorithm verifies a reference image obtained when recognizing the previous frame. After that the frame is compared with a few number of reference images. Each next examined reference image is chosen so that to maximize conditional probability density of distances to the reference instances tested at previous steps. To decrease the required memory space we beforehand calculate only distances from all the images to small number of instances (pivots). When experimenting with either face photos from Labeled Faces in the Wild and PubFig83 datasets or with video data from YouTube Faces we showed that our algorithm allows accelerating the recognition procedure by 1.4–4 times comparing with known approximate nearest neighbor methods.

A model for organizing cargo transportation between two node stations connected by a railway line which contains a certain number of intermediate stations is considered. The movement of cargo is in one direction. Such a situation may occur, for example, if one of the node stations is located in a region which produce raw material for manufacturing industry located in another region, and there is another node station. The organization of freight traﬃc is performed by means of a number of technologies. These technologies determine the rules for taking on cargo at the initial node station, the rules of interaction between neighboring stations, as well as the rule of distribution of cargo to the ﬁnal node stations. The process of cargo transportation is followed by the set rule of control. For such a model, one must determine possible modes of cargo transportation and describe their properties. This model is described by a ﬁnite-dimensional system of diﬀerential equations with nonlocal linear restrictions. The class of the solution satisfying nonlocal linear restrictions is extremely narrow. It results in the need for the “correct” extension of solutions of a system of diﬀerential equations to a class of quasi-solutions having the distinctive feature of gaps in a countable number of points. It was possible numerically using the Runge–Kutta method of the fourth order to build these quasi-solutions and determine their rate of growth. Let us note that in the technical plan the main complexity consisted in obtaining quasi-solutions satisfying the nonlocal linear restrictions. Furthermore, we investigated the dependence of quasi-solutions and, in particular, sizes of gaps (jumps) of solutions on a number of parameters of the model characterizing a rule of control, technologies for transportation of cargo and intensity of giving of cargo on a node station.

Event logs collected by modern information and technical systems usually contain enough data for automated process models discovery. A variety of algorithms was developed for process models discovery, conformance checking, log to model alignment, comparison of process models, etc., nevertheless a quick analysis of ad-hoc selected parts of a journal still have not get a full-fledged implementation. This paper describes an ROLAP-based method of multidimensional event logs storage for process mining. The result of the analysis of the journal is visualized as directed graph representing the union of all possible event sequences, ranked by their occurrence probability. Our implementation allows the analyst to discover process models for sublogs defined by ad-hoc selection of criteria and value of occurrence probability

The dynamics of a two-component Davydov-Scott (DS) soliton with a small mismatch of the initial location or velocity of the high-frequency (HF) component was investigated within the framework of the Zakharov-type system of two coupled equations for the HF and low-frequency (LF) fields. In this system, the HF field is described by the linear Schrödinger equation with the potential generated by the LF component varying in time and space. The LF component in this system is described by the Korteweg-de Vries equation with a term of quadratic influence of the HF field on the LF field. The frequency of the DS soliton`s component oscillation was found analytically using the balance equation. The perturbed DS soliton was shown to be stable. The analytical results were confirmed by numerical simulations.

Let k be a field of characteristic zero, let G be a connected reductive algebraic group over k and let g be its Lie algebra. Let k(G), respectively, k(g), be the field of k- rational functions on G, respectively, g. The conjugation action of G on itself induces the adjoint action of G on g. We investigate the question whether or not the field extensions k(G)/k(G)^G and k(g)/k(g)^G are purely transcendental. We show that the answer is the same for k(G)/k(G)^G and k(g)/k(g)^G, and reduce the problem to the case where G is simple. For simple groups we show that the answer is positive if G is split of type A_n or C_n, and negative for groups of other types, except possibly G_2. A key ingredient in the proof of the negative result is a recent formula for the unramified Brauer group of a homogeneous space with connected stabilizers. As a byproduct of our investigation we give an affirmative answer to a question of Grothendieck about the existence of a rational section of the categorical quotient morphism for the conjugating action of G on itself.

Let G be a connected semisimple algebraic group over an algebraically closed field k. In 1965 Steinberg proved that if G is simply connected, then in G there exists a closed irreducible cross-section of the set of closures of regular conjugacy classes. We prove that in arbitrary G such a cross-section exists if and only if the universal covering isogeny Ĝ → G is bijective; this answers Grothendieck's question cited in the epigraph. In particular, for char k = 0, the converse to Steinberg's theorem holds. The existence of a cross-section in G implies, at least for char k = 0, that the algebra k[G]G of class functions on G is generated by rk G elements. We describe, for arbitrary G, a minimal generating set of k[G]G and that of the representation ring of G and answer two Grothendieck's questions on constructing generating sets of k[G]G. We prove the existence of a rational (i.e., local) section of the quotient morphism for arbitrary G and the existence of a rational cross-section in G (for char k = 0, this has been proved earlier); this answers the other question cited in the epigraph. We also prove that the existence of a rational section is equivalent to the existence of a rational W-equivariant map T- - - >G/T where T is a maximal torus of G and W the Weyl group.