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## On the Evolution of Hypercycles

In this study, we examine the process of fitness landscape evolution of the hypercycle system. We assume that the parameters that define the fitness landscape change in order to maximize the mean fitness of the system. The environmental influence is expressed as resource limitation: we formalize it as a restriction on the fitness matrix coefficients. We show that this process of adaptation leads to a system that is sustainable in the presence of parasites. Even if the parasites are harmful to the classical hypercycle, the persistence of the population develops under fitness landscape evolution. One of the central results presented in this paper is the existence of a phase transition similar to the “error threshold” in the Eigen model: starting from some time moment the mean fitness value increase to a plateau and the hypercycle structure changes. The evolutionary parameters that define the fitness landscape and the mean fitness value tend to stabilize.

In this book Lee Rudolph brings together international contributors who combine psychological and mathematical perspectives to analyse how qualitative mathematics can be used to create models of social and psychological processes. Bridging the gap between the fields with an imaginative and stimulating collection of contributed chapters, the volume updates the current research on the subject, which until now has been rather limited, focussing largely on the use of statistics.

*Qualitative Mathematics for the Social Sciences* contains a variety of useful illustrative figures, introducing readers from the social sciences to the rich contribution that modern mathematics has made to our knowledge of logic, structures, and dynamic systems. A beguiling array of conceptual systems, topological models and fractals are discussed which transcend the application of statistics, and bring a fresh perspective to the study of social representations.

The wide selection of qualitative mathematical methodologies discussed in this volume will be hugely valuable to higher-level undergraduate and postgraduate students of psychology, sociology and mathematics. It will also be useful for researchers, academics and professionals from the social sciences who want a firmer grasp on the use of qualitative mathematics.

The model of a growing medium consisting of two phases, liquid and solid, is developed. Growth is treated as a combination of the irreversible deformation of the solid phase and its mass increment due to mass exchange with the liquid phase. The inelastic strain rate of the solid phase depends on the stresses in it, which are determined by the forces both external with respect to the medium and exerted by the liquid phase. In the liquid phase the pressure develops due to the presence of a chemical component whose displacement is hampered by its interaction with the solid phase. The approach developed makes it possible to waive many problems discussed in the theory of growing continua. Possible generalizations are considered.

The article is dedicated to innovation ecosystems formation and development. The conditions required for their emergence and maturity assessment approach (basing on the example of US metropolitan area including the Silicon Valley) and the city of Tomsk are revealed in the article.

The report covers the method of the estimated life of electronic devices of control and communication systems at the stage of their development. Mathematical model of life control and communication systems and electronic devices are provided. It is shown that the value of the life of control and communication systems significantly depends on the coefficient of variation of life of electronic devices.

The book deals with the models and methods of combined rail-road transportation development.

Modern concepts of combined tramsport and their implementation in European and North-American regions are analyzed. Scientific researh results in this sphere are studied as well as the principle business decisions in combined transport. Mathematical models are developed in order to identify the parameters of the combined transport systems. Prerequisites and possible directions of combined transportation technologies in Russia are discussed.

We consider certain spaces of functions on the circle, which naturally appear in harmonic analysis, and superposition operators on these spaces. We study the following question: which functions have the property that each their superposition with a homeomorphism of the circle belongs to a given space? We also study the multidimensional case.

We consider the spaces of functions on the m-dimensional torus, whose Fourier transform is p -summable. We obtain estimates for the norms of the exponential functions deformed by a C1 -smooth phase. The results generalize to the multidimensional case the one-dimensional results obtained by the author earlier in “Quantitative estimates in the Beurling—Helson theorem”, Sbornik: Mathematics, 201:12 (2010), 1811 – 1836.

We consider the spaces of function on the circle whose Fourier transform is p-summable. We obtain estimates for the norms of exponential functions deformed by a C1 -smooth phase.

Let k be a field of characteristic zero, let G be a connected reductive algebraic group over k and let g be its Lie algebra. Let k(G), respectively, k(g), be the field of k- rational functions on G, respectively, g. The conjugation action of G on itself induces the adjoint action of G on g. We investigate the question whether or not the field extensions k(G)/k(G)^G and k(g)/k(g)^G are purely transcendental. We show that the answer is the same for k(G)/k(G)^G and k(g)/k(g)^G, and reduce the problem to the case where G is simple. For simple groups we show that the answer is positive if G is split of type A_n or C_n, and negative for groups of other types, except possibly G_2. A key ingredient in the proof of the negative result is a recent formula for the unramified Brauer group of a homogeneous space with connected stabilizers. As a byproduct of our investigation we give an affirmative answer to a question of Grothendieck about the existence of a rational section of the categorical quotient morphism for the conjugating action of G on itself.

Let G be a connected semisimple algebraic group over an algebraically closed field k. In 1965 Steinberg proved that if G is simply connected, then in G there exists a closed irreducible cross-section of the set of closures of regular conjugacy classes. We prove that in arbitrary G such a cross-section exists if and only if the universal covering isogeny Ĝ → G is bijective; this answers Grothendieck's question cited in the epigraph. In particular, for char k = 0, the converse to Steinberg's theorem holds. The existence of a cross-section in G implies, at least for char k = 0, that the algebra k[G]G of class functions on G is generated by rk G elements. We describe, for arbitrary G, a minimal generating set of k[G]G and that of the representation ring of G and answer two Grothendieck's questions on constructing generating sets of k[G]G. We prove the existence of a rational (i.e., local) section of the quotient morphism for arbitrary G and the existence of a rational cross-section in G (for char k = 0, this has been proved earlier); this answers the other question cited in the epigraph. We also prove that the existence of a rational section is equivalent to the existence of a rational W-equivariant map T- - - >G/T where T is a maximal torus of G and W the Weyl group.