Неоинституционализм рационального выбора: преимущества и внутренние противоречия
The author sets the task to explain the possibilities of applying the conception of the neo-institutionalism of rational choice to the analysis of political institutions, and undertakes the attempt to consider the logic and some distinctive features of this type of researches, its benefits and limits. The article consists of three paragraphs: in the first one the author gives the general characteristic of neo-institutional paradigm, in the second considers the evolution from the traditional to new institutionalism of rational choice, and in conclusion emphasizes the main principles of the logic of the approach to the analysis of political institutions.
Main objective of this aticle is to reveal the role of business reputation the problematic sociojuridical environment, in which Russian business operates today. Special attention is drawn to the estimation of the level of intensity of civilized business attributes (severity of aw compliance, business liabilities, ethics, etc.) in the features, according to which successful businessmen and managers identify companies with good business reputation today. Another important issue considered in the article is most typical types of business reputation in contemporary Russia.
The book is devoted to the causes and special aspects of modern authoritarian political regimes, which differ from their last century analogues with a pronounced imitative character. Hamstrung by democratic constitutions and international obligations, many post-socialist countries actually mimic democratic institutions and procedures, trying to hide real authoritarianism behind a beautiful democratic signboard. It turns out that the level of authoritarianism is directly proportional to the imitations level. The study also proves that the imitations level is also proportional to the levels of aggression, corruption and poverty. What are the reasons for the rise of imitative political regimes? How and by what means is their constitutional field transformed? On what grounds can they be identified in advance? The book attempts to answer these questions in the name of preventing the threat of return of authoritarianism in the post-socialist countries.
Drawing on the neo-institutional approach in organizational theory and global strategy, we advance a theory on the impact that differences in cultural egalitarianism have on multinational firms’ decision of where to engage in foreign direct investment (FDI) across the globe. Egalitarianism expresses a society’s cultural orientation with respect to intolerance for abuses of market and political power; it shapes the ways in which firms holding power interact with different stakeholders. After presenting a series of case illustrations, we find a strong negative impact of egalitarianism distance on FDI flows in a broad sample of nations and for different entry modes. Our results are robust to a broad set of competing accounts, including effects from other cultural dimensions, major features of the legal and regulatory regimes, other features of the institutional system, and economic development. These results hold while controlling for origin and host country factors through a fixed-effects specification as well as by using instruments for egalitarianism. We also find that other cultural influences are important as well. Differences in cultural harmony are actually positively associated with increased FDI flows, likely because multinational firms seek countries with lower societal support for entrepreneurship. FDI further tends to flow from high embeddedness to low embeddedness countries, and we link this in part to international regulatory arbitrage on environmental protection regimes.
The book contains articles by six Russian and seven international scholars who participated in a joint research project looking at, on the one hand, the development and contemporary state of democracy in the world, and on the other hand, at the political development of post-Communist Russia. The goal of the research was to analyze the Russian political practives in the light of today's political science knowledge about democracy, with its achivements and flaws, and to enrich the democratic theory with insights of the Russian experience.
In the article the necessity of institutional changes on the way to sustainable ecological-economic development and the multidirectional nature of the process is proved. The authors offer the ways of forming effective institutional mechanism. And the features of institutional transformations in Russia are emphasized.
The chapter aims at studying the process of the formation of the Russian Empire in the 18th century, the formation of its political institutions, center-periphery relations and social structure of the Russian society.
Over the recent years Russian audience has been leaving federal TV channels. At the same time, there is another trend showing the emergence of a large number of specialized niche channels. On the emerging market of specialized channels one can see a situation when there is no formal regulation of market agents’ activities that are fully developed and correspond market conditions. So far, public authorities and market agents make certain institutional compromise when sometimes formal rules can be partially ignored. So, we can expect some institutional changes in the nearest future.