«Полезные записи об изготовлении бумаги» («Камисуки тёхоки») как первое иллюстрированное руководство по изготовлению бумаги
The article touches upon the phenomenon of Japanese handmade paper given the example of “The Precious Notes on Papermaking” (“Kamisuki Chohoki”) as the first printed illustrated manual on papermaking in Japan. When Japanese masters borrowed first samples of paper from China, they spent long time to adopt new technology of papermaking and find the most fitting materials. Apart from western masters, who engaged in making this process more mechanized, Japanese masters maintained manual way of papermaking up to 1872. All this time they considered quality more important than quantity. This probably made Japanese paper an example of the highest quality. The manual on papermaking “Kamisuki Chohoki” (1798) was published for the first time. It became well known not only among Japanese masters, but also among foreigners.The article also provides full translation of “The Precious Notes on Papermaking” into Russian language.
During the XVIth century Japan acquires Western geographical knowledge for the first time. The adaptation went on comparatively fast, and thinkers of the Edo period (1603 - 1867) started to offer their own view of the world. Unevitably different systems of knowledge were mixed, and also Japan was compared to China, India and Europe. As a result the idea of Japan's supremacy was supported in a new way. Nishikawa offered one of the most original explanations, which is compared to of the other thinkers'.
Kouta, the songs of the licensed quarters, still remain one of the most poorly explored genres of the Edo period literature. These songs, created by anonymous female authors from luxurious brothels with the assistance of the bohemian literati of the time, were known for many centuries as the treasury of Japanese folklore. The highest level of education and considerable poetic skills typical for many authors became a token of close connection with classical poetry and predestined the role of the genre in the formation of literary canon in Kabuki and Joruri drama.
In the meantime, kouta present a brilliant example of the most successful adaptation and transformation of the whole palette of folklore lyrical songs – from the dancing tunes with rhythmic refrains free of any semantic functions to the long dramatic ballads and descriptions of specific locations in the genre of a poetic guidebook. Professional compilers and editors of the kouta collections deserve great appreciation both for the amount of the preserved songs and for the skillful composition of the books. Impressive achievements of the editors reveal the existence of a folklore studies trend in premodern Japan – a phenomenon that can be compared only to the infatuation with folklore so typical for the age of Romanticism in Europe.
Kouta anthologies compiled in the 17–18th centuries essentially constitute one great poetic monument, a unity in diversity revealing the slightest details of the city life and featuring primarily customs and mores of the licensed quarters. Unlike the most provocative, sometimes even grotesque imagery of the shunga erotic woodblock prints, kouta tell the stories of true love and suffering of the joro sexual slaves from “tea houses”.
Musical and poetic merits of the kouta songs gained them great reputation not only in the professional geisha community, but also among the public at large. Kouta influenced the formation of the Japanese Romanticist shintaishi poetry in the late 19th century and made a strong impact on enka, the most successful folk song genre of the 20th century.
The article describes the view of the Western countries in Japan during the Edo period (1603 – 1867). The basic source of the research is the treatise «Zo:ho: Kai Tsu:sho: Ko:» by Nishikawa Joken (1648 – 1724), which has been relatively rarely used by researchers despite its value. The author aimed to give a rational decription of the West, although in fact it approached almost grotesque. Still one should aknowledge that during the age of seclusion the Japanese were rather well informed about the external world. The main source of information were the Dutch living in Nagasaki.
During the Edo period (1603 – 1867) Japanese thinkers adopt some elements of European geographical thought. The newly created view of the world included both traditional and Western scientific knowledge. The treatise “Nihon Suido Ko:” by Nishikawa Joken (1648 – 1724) is one of the earliest examples of such kind of synthesis. The work was important not only for the development of geographical thought, but also for self-presentation of the Japanese people, as the synthesis of different source of knowledge was aimed to determine the position of Japan in the world.
The paper is focused on the study of reaction of italian literature critics on the publication of the Boris Pasternak's novel "Doctor Jivago". The analysys of the book ""Doctor Jivago", Pasternak, 1958, Italy" (published in Russian language in "Reka vremen", 2012, in Moscow) is given. The papers of italian writers, critics and historians of literature, who reacted immediately upon the publication of the novel (A. Moravia, I. Calvino, F.Fortini, C. Cassola, C. Salinari ecc.) are studied and analised.
In the article the patterns of the realization of emotional utterances in dialogic and monologic speech are described. The author pays special attention to the characteristic features of the speech of a speaker feeling psychic tension and to the compositional-pragmatic peculiarities of dialogic and monologic text.