Population mobility and the contrasts between cities in the Russian Arctic and their southern Russian counterparts
A comparison of Arctic cities in Russia with their counterparts in the southern parts of the country suggests that there are no significant differences in the degree of employment specialization or in many indicators of social amenities and services. The most important distinguishing feature of Arctic cities in Russia is the high mobility of their populations and the relative ease with which they move. The mobility of the Arctic population should be recognized as a kind of safety valve for the Arctic cities, underpinning their resilience in the face of changes in economic conditions.
Throughout the twentieth century, glaciologists and geophysicists from Denmark, Norway andSweden made important scientific contributions across the Arctic and Antarctic. This research was of acute security and policy interest during the Cold War, as knowledge of the polar regions assumed military importance. But scientists also helped make the polar regionsNordic spaces in a cultural and political sense, with scientists from Norden punching far above their weight in terms of population, geographical size or economic activity. This volume presents an image of Norden that stretches far beyond its conventional limits,covering a vast area in the North Atlantic and the Arctic Sea, as well as parts of Antarctica. Rich in resources, scarce in population, but critically important in global and regional geopolitics, these spaces were contested by major powers such as Russia, the United States, Canada and, in the Antarctic, Argentina, Australia, South Africa and others. The empirical focus on Danish, Norwegian and Swedish influence in the polar regions during the twentieth century embraces a diverse array of themes, from the role of science in policy and diplomacy to the tensions between nationalism and internationalism, with clear relevance to the important role science plays in contemporary discussions about Nordic engagement with the polar regions.
This paper analyses the determinants of national student mobility under the unified system of admission in Russia and evaluates the barriers which still limit educational mobility. It is argued that even with the Unified State Examination (USE) and the decreased transaction costs of applying to universities, student interregional national mobility is directed towards more developed regional educational markets and richer regions, but is still limited due to the financial constraints in the absence of the additional student support. Russia is an interesting case, because it consists of regions with highly variable socio-economic development and it represents local higher education markets with different levels of competition between universities, which may influence the decision to move. USE was intended to mitigate against these differences, and for political reasons under USE such differences are not considered the main barriers of access to higher education. However, this study takes into account the importance of the institutional characteristics of regions in student mobility.
This chapter is a first attempt to study the development of different kind of field stations in the western sector of the Russian Arctic in theperiod from the First to Second International Polar Years (1882 - 1933). As more or less independent entities, marine biological and polar meteorological stations were on different sides of the process but were interconnected through the people involved and the filed research practices implemented.Three major concerns influenced the development of field studies in the Russian Arctic – navigation, demands for the efficient use of natural resources and the political–military strategy of keeping land and their surrounding seas under Soviet control. Stations gradually moved further north from the sub-Arctic to the Arctic islands.The scientific network in the Arctic was initially established through the confrontation between interrelated sites of knowledge – field stations and research vessels – before their merger and placement in the same centralized network, which subsequently became very efficient with the introduction of aviation. The stations were not just crucial places for knowledge production but also places for the transfer of scientific, primarily tacit, knowledge about observations and laboratory analysis. They also maintained a specific culture of field sciences. By the time of the Second IPY in the Soviet Arctic, a distinct shift could be seen from broad international cooperation to a centralized national network and from scientific, educational and local economic objectives to military, geopolitical and broader economic interests.
The post-Cold War Arctic has seen a transformation from military tension and a focus on national security to a concern for environmental and human security. As a result of this, the globalized Arctic has a high level of peace and stability, maintained by international cooperation between the Arctic states, northern indigenous peoples, sub-national governments and local actors. There has also been a shift from environmental protection to economic activities and, consequently, states easily trump other interests. Now, in the Arctic, these challenges require fresh thinking on a local and global scale. Regional wars, the 'war on terror', and economic crises have posed new threats to Northern security order.
The article analyses the dynamics of the population of 75 regional centers and second by population size cities of the regions in Russia. The analysis is based on the population census data from 1959 to 2010 and on the current recording data for 2011–2017. In the vast majority of regions, there is a significant dominance of the regional center over the second city. It manifests itself both in the absolute parameters of the population size and in the shares of regional centers and second cities in the population sizes of their regions. In 31 regions of the country, the share of the regional center by 2002 already reached 35% and continued to increase. Fifteen years later, in 13 regions of the country, it exceeded 45%. The maximum bar of possible concentration of the population in the regional center is not yet visible. Over time, the prevailing of regional centers over the second cities of the regions is increasing. The analysis showed that the opportunities for population increase in the second cities depend on their population size: gradually, between the second cities with a population of more than 250 000 people, the number of growing cities is increasing; between second small cities, the share between depopulating and growing cities is practically unchanged. Thus, the tendencies of centrism in the regions take precedence over polycentricity. The population is increasingly concentrated in separate points, vested with power. These processes are based on historical and evolutionary (history of settlement, development and urbanization), functional-economic, administrative-territorial and demographic determinants. An increasingly important factor contributing to the concentration of the population is institutional factor (associated with the performance by the regional centers of the capital functions and reducing the costs of business and consumers).
The author attempts to reveal the most efficient methods of mental mapping for cultural geography and geohumanities. The retrospective overview refers to the two opposing understandings of the “mental maps” term. The first mental maps type includes orientation schemes, which exist in minds and can be visualized as special diagrams. The second type unites various kinds of geoimages with conventional or traditional cartographic proportions, from sketch maps made by informants based on the researcher’s task, to thematic geographical maps presenting certain kinds of space perceptions. The author argues that the combinations of those two approaches with the major space images (revealed using research methods) localized in certain places on the conventional geographical map are the most prospective.
The set of problems relating to the South China Sea – a vast maritime area forming the strategic heartland of Southeast Asia – has traditionally loomed large in foreign policy priorities of the key powers shaping the regional geopolitical landscape. Currently, there are strong reasons for arguing that the South China Sea issue is very likely to increase its rank in the key priorities of the US, China and ASEAN.
This article describes a specific type of urban field research: the commercial-facility location problems as one of the practical problem of geomarketing. The education method presented in the article have been worked out and repeatedly applied during student field practices at the Geographical Faculty of Lomonosov Moscow State University; its elements — are part of the Vysokovsky Graduate School of Urbanism educational program. By solving simple practical problem (searching for the best location for some facility), students not only gain the skills of field work, but also learn to conduct complete researches on their own. Teaching students a comprehensive analysis of diverse and holistic urban space is the main goal of this method.
We address the external effects on public sector efficiency measures acquired using Data Envelopment Analysis. We use the health care system in Russian regions in 2011 to evaluate modern approaches to accounting for external effects. We propose a promising method of correcting DEA efficiency measures. Despite the multiple advantages DEA offers, the usage of this approach carries with it a number of methodological difficulties. Accounting for multiple factors of efficiency calls for more complex methods, among which the most promising are DMU clustering and calculating local production possibility frontiers. Using regression models for estimate correction requires further study due to possible systematic errors during estimation. A mixture of data correction and DMU clustering together with multi-stage DEA seems most promising at the moment. Analyzing several stages of transforming society’s resources into social welfare will allow for picking out the weak points in a state agency’s work.