The paper explores interaction between ethnic, national and religious identities in the region of South Caucasus - Armenia, Azerbaijan and Georgia. The post-Soviet societal transformations created a new situation that was followed by the new identity-formation - an explosion of ethnic and naitonal claims. This development perplexed academic stereotypes, which assumed the relativization of particularistic idenitities in a globalizing world. The Caucasian material illustrated new trends in this debate.
The aim of the presented article is to consider the conditions in which intuitive conjectures in historical constructions transform into a scientific hypothesis. In order to prove it, the author takes into account the procedure of identifying verbal texts which underlie the descriptions found in the historical source, and which explicitly reveal the meaning of the retrospective information. The methodological basis of the study is the hermeneutic approach. One of the unique sources was taken as an example: the only preserved description of the Oprichny Palace, left by the German oprichnik Heinrich Staden. A. L. Yurganov connected a number of details of this description (the square form of the palace, the three gates facing north, south and east, the absence of the western gate, the fact that only the Grand Duke could enter through the eastern gate, etc.) with the City of God described by the prophet Ezekiel. However, Yurganov tried to comprehend the details of the Staden’s description through the Revelation of John the Theologian in order to emphasize the connection of the Palace with the eschatological expectations of the 16th century. Yurganov simply did not notice a number of other details (the coincidence of dimensions, the topography of the Palace, the dates of the creation of the Palace and the designation of the oprichnina, the connection of the Palace with other buildings that appeared in Moscow at the same time, etc.). All of this raised serious doubts about the accuracy of the proposed interpretation of Staden’s description of the Oprichny Palace, if not discredited Yurganov’s idea. These details receive correct interpretation when we turn to the Book of the Prophet Ezekiel and to the Third Book of Enoch. They are also the additional sources on which the article is based. A systematic analysis of the details of the Oprichny Palace makes it possible to assume with full justification that the oprichnina was a preparation for the End of the World, which was expected in 7077 (1569). Ivan the Terrible assumed the functions of the Savior, believing that he was the Messiah himself. The burning of the Oprichny Palace by the Crimean Khan Devlet Giray in 1572 was a sign for Ivan IV that God did not accept this claim. Oprichnina was abolished and the very word oprichnina was prohibited. Thus, a systematic appeal to the correct sources makes it possible to transform a clever assumption into a scientific hypothesis.
The book is based on unique materials from the archive of the Institute. Ethnology and Anthropology named N.N. Maclay RAS, collected by Russian scientists during the work of the Khorezm Expedition, which worked from 1937 to 1997 This album includes materials of works from 1937-1959: photographs, drawings, drawings, excerpts from field diaries, reports, memories of participants.Section 1 of the book-album provides information on the history of discovery and research. archaeological sites of ancient Khorezm. Detailed coverage of the initial Expedition stage - discovery of the Khorezm oasis, archaeological work on key monuments of Toprak-Kala, Koy-Krylgan-Kala, Janbas-Kala, Ustyurt Plateau. Section 2 contains information on the ethnographic work of ethnographic groups. in Karakalpakstan in the 40s-50s. and illustrative ethnographic materials. The publication is intended for a wide range of readers, experts related disciplines, teachers and students.
The volume incklude the results of studying different sources of written, artistic and material heritage of 6-20th cc.
Analyzed the methods of the formation of the source basis in historical research.
The cognitive history paradigm proposed by the prominent Russian scientist is a new research strategy in modern humanities. The crucial element of this concept is an idea of the “intellectual product” as the material evidence and proof of human purpose-oriented activity in history and a universal instrument of cultural exchange across historical periods and political borders. By the using of this concept social scientists obtain the possibility to establish a new methodology of verified historical studies.