R&D in Trade Networks: The Role of Asymmetry
This paper argues that asymmetry in countries' trade exposure is an important determinant of firms'
R&D, productivity and countries' welfare. We model a choice of R&D in a given trade network focusing
on asymmetric hub-and-spoke networks and symmetric networks. We find that R&D, productivity
and total surplus are highest in a hub economy and lowest in a spoke, while intermediate levels
are exhibited by countries in a symmetric network. Thus, regional/preferential trade agreements,
resulting in asymmetric trade networks, benefit hubs but harm spokes. By contrast, multilateral trade
agreements, resulting in a complete network, generate equal R&D and welfare benefits for all countries.
This book presents nine case studies on small and medium-sized Russian innovative companies that received at different times financial support of the Foundation for Assistance to Small Innovative Enterprises in Science and Technology (FASIE). These case studies reveal 'live' experience in the setting up and development of innovative businesses in various fields: production of new products and materials, IT, industrial, scientific and medical devices, medical diagnostics. Various specific examples show the main problems faced by small innovative companies in raising financial backing for R&D and further commercialization and implementation of new products, technologies and services, as well as ways and means to address these problems in a different business environment. All case studies were elaborated on the basis of in-depth interviews with company executives within the framework of the project “Factory of cases”, completed by Higher School of Economics by commission from FASIE. The book also contains the review article, illustrating the specifics of innovative activity of small and medium-sized start-ups in Russia, and additionally provides brief analytical findings based on the results of the special study “Social profile of the modern russian innovative entrepreneur”, conducted by the Institute of Innovation Management in 2011. These collected articles are designed for innovative entrepreneurs and executives of small and medium-sized innovative companies, investors, managers and specialists of innovation support infrastructure.
Innovative activity of companies differs due to their sphere. This paper will focus on companies operating in the IT (Information Technology) sphere, whose business success depends on innovations more than the success of companies in any other sector. Innovations for manufacturing hi-tech products, for example, computer equipment, demand more intense (narrower) focus on product innovations owing to the fact that the basis of viability and financial well-being of hi-tech companies is demand for their products. Therefore, innovations in such companies are mostly directed at creation of new products or modernization of the already existing ones. As a consequence, in order to define the activity of IT companies more precisely we should use specific classification of innovation strategies. The innovative behavior of IT-companies is one of the main sources of competitiveness, business survival and economic growth. It is therefore important to identify and understand the factors that determine innovation behavior among IT enterprises. Innovation behavior depends on innovation capacity and is realized in a particular innovation strategy. This paper attempts to show the mechanism of choosing the most appropriate innovation strategy and the most accurate project estimation. Using the data collected on IT companies, the correlation between innovation strategies and company’s performance was found.
In light of globalisation of knowledge generation, Science and Technology have opened up previously distinct borderlines now favoring overlapping if not merged fields. Hence innovation becomes more complex by bundling different technological solutions in new products, processes, services and business models, which stem from different scientific and technological roots. Thus spillovers are an essential precondition towards the establishment of new interdisciplinary fields of knowledge, science and technology. The paper reviews and synthesizes literature on spillovers, introduces a typology of spillovers and a taxonomy of spillover channels, estimates the economic impact of spillovers. Special attention is paid to assessing recipient’s capabilities to absorb new knowledge thus gaining advantages for own development. The author concludes that knowledge spillovers have a positive impact on performance of a recipient (company, country or region) as long as it possesses sufficient absorptive capacity. Spillovers might under certain circumstances lead to strengthening competition between knowledge recipients at the cost of the place of origin. Nonetheless the latter still is in a position to use instruments of legal protection of own knowledge (under certain circumstances), build on the existing competences and capacities and invest in the next frontier of knowledge and technology in certain fields and moreover create a boom in the field of knowledge and technology generated using marketing instruments extensively.
This article analyzes the methods used by network companies to improve the efficiency of logistics operations in the field of trade in goods of daily demand. The tendencies which can be considered for increase of efficiency of activity of FMCG-retailers are revealed
The idea of ligalization of bribe giving for certain types of bribes was expressed by K. Basu in 2011 and got a name Basu proposal. In this paper we discuss effects that can be caused by the direct implementation of this proposal. Our game-theoretic model shows that while legalisation of certain bribe-giving occurances can lead to some positive consequences, it is not always a good idea to return bribe to the bribe-giver as suggested by Basu. The chance to get the paid bribe back increases the amount of bribes that end up in corrupt officials' pockets.
The paper contains a review of the on-line services’ contemporary state, which are providing access to scientific data bases of patents and publications in magazines. On the example of a family of screen’s technologies (CRT, LCD, PDP) were shown the development and the replacement of technological trends in that branch of researches. This analysis was performed on the base of time series of the patent data via methods of the data mining.
Supposing that Player 1’s computational power is higher than that of Player 2, we give three examples of different kinds of public signal about the state of a two-person zero-sum game with symmetric incom- plete information on both sides (both players do not know the state of the game) where Player 1 due to his computational power learns the state of the game meanwhile it is impossible for Player 2. That is, the game with incomplete information on both sides becomes a game with incomplete information on the side of Player 2. Thus we demonstrate that information about the state of a game may appear not only due to a private signal but as a result of a public signal and asymmetric computational resources of players.